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Gjuha shqipe “Gjuha jonė sa e mirė!/ Sa e ėmblė, sa e gjerė!/ Sa e lehtė, sa e lirė!/ Sa e bukur, sa e vlerė!” Naim Frashėri

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Mundėsitė nė temė Mėnyra e shfaqjes
i vjetėr 10-11-2011, 19:38   #1
Mano
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Gjendja bazė Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Indo-Europiane

Prurja e ketij shkrimi ne kete forum eshte thjesht nje perpjekeje per te zbardhur pak drite ne nje subjekt qe per mendimin time po harrohet. Ne rastin me te mire po nenvleresohet si dicka e pa rendesishme ne kohet e veshtira qe gjendet vendi yne sote per sote. Por: KY eshte pikerisht thelbi I problematikes shqiptare. Kur nje peme I helmohen dhe dobesohen rrenjet eshte kollaj te permbyset, sa do e lashte dhe e forte te jete. Shqiptaret po harrojn rrenjet dhe prejardhjen e tyre te vertet, eshte dy here tragjike menyra se si nje popull kaq I vjeter me nje kulture aq te vecant dhe te lasht po ben nje vetvrasje, po hedh veten ne humnere nje here e pergjithmone.

Qe shkrimi te kuptohet me mire duhet perdorur nje menyre tjeter e te menduarit. Duhen zgjeruar pak kufijet e te menduarit Brenda kornizes clasike. Dega e shkences vetem, nuk mund te zgjidhi cdo enigem dhe te pergjigji te gjitha pyetjet. Ashtu si as Arsyetimi dhe llogjika vetem, nuk mund bejn nje gje te tille. Prandaj gershetimi I te dyjave mund te mbusht boshlleqet qe te dyja len pas kur veprojn te panvarura nga njera tjera. Nje bashkpunim I till Lind spekulime te reja, qe me ane to studimit dhe kushtimit rigoroze mund te zbardhin pak drite ne enigmat e shumta qe rrethojn Ceshtjen Shqiptare. Kur njeriu gjen arsyen, kurajon dhe vullnetin per te gjetur te verteten dhe vetem te verteten me cdo menyre, hapi I pare qe duhet marre eshte anashkalimi i faktorit “Njeri” dhe tere madheshtine e tij Subjektive. Kjo manyre e te menduarit thjeshteson gjerat , madje mund te qartesoj gjithe Mjergullen qe krijohet nga ky apo ai factor per te mbuluar te Verteten! Kjo menyre e te menduarit e ngre njeriun ne lartesine e duhur per ti pare gjerat me gjere e gjate dhe me qarte. Nje lartesi Marramendese per mendjen e kufizuar. Pra eshte mendja e shendoshe dhe kurjoze ajo qe ben gjithcka te mundur. Duke ndjekur metoda te tilla njeriu ka tejkaluar cdo kufi qe I eshte imponuar nga faktori “njeri”. Perndryshe sote do te jetonim akoma ne “token e rrafshet” dhe do te vazhdonim te digjnim njerezit te gjalle per “blesfomin” e rradhes ne emer te “Zotit”.

Shkrimi qe po bie ketu filloj si nje studim, nje kurjozitet personal dhe gjat rruges se kerkimit hasa ne burime te shumta interesante. Shumica e fjaleve qe mblodha kane nje rendesi, dhe mendoj se jane relativisht te panjohura ose nuk jane trajtuar/studjuar ne kendveshtrimin e duhur, te pakten me sa kam par deri tani. Jame munduar qe te paraqes afersine qe fjalet shqipe kan se pari me gjuhen “PIE-ne” dhe si rrjedhim afersine qe ajo ka me te gjithe gjuhet Indo-Europeane. Shpresoj “rimarjen” ose “rekthimin” e fjaleve shqipe ne repertorin e saj autokton. Edhe sikur numri I tyre te ishte vetm “10”, do ta konsideroja “punen time” nje sukses. Per hire te korrekteses jam munduar qe ti zberthej keto fjale ne menyren objective dhe te arsyeshme. Pra dua te konstatoj nje te vertet, si do qe ajo te jet.

Do ti dal perpara ati elementi (militant) qe do te mundohet te hedh posht kete shkrim duke e quajtur ate amator dhe te pavlefshem, duke e pranuar vet qe eshte nje shkrim amator. Por kjo nuk duhet te mjaftoj per cvleresimin e tij te plot. Synimi im eshte rikthimi i sa me shume fjaleve shqipe ne fjalorin tone autoktone. Por megjitheate ky shkrim duhet par me objektivizem. Jo te gjitha fjalet e paraqitura duhet te “konsiderohen” si pasardhese te shqipes. Disa nga ato une mendoj se mund te shihen si Etimilogjia e disa fjaleve shqipe. Edhe nje here dua te theksoj se elementit (militant), qe do te mundohet te cvlersoj shkrimin dhe ne vecanti fjalet qe kam prure, une nuk do ti pergjigjem. Me sa kame pare deri tani neper tema te gjashme kundershtimet qe ky element bie ne “tavoline” jane jo te bazuara ne fakte apo llogjike te shendoshe, por opinione te krijuara nga nje mendje e kufizuar, ose flasin me fjalet e te “tjereve”. Nje individ qe mundohet te subjektivizoj cdo gje ne favor te existences se tij patetike nuk ka vend ne Tema dhe debate te tilla. Megjithate do mundohem ti pergjigjem te gjith kundershtimeve te arsyeshme me sa kam mundesite.

P.S. Shkrimi I plot eshte pothuajse 250 faqe I gjate, dhe permban mese 1000 fjale te mbledhura. Ketu kam prure vetem 1/3 e shrkimit. Reth plotesisht 80 faqe. Per arsyen qe materiali eshte volumes do te perpiqem ta bie “postoj” pjeserisht. Per ata qe nuk kane “durim”ose interes per te lexuar pjesen tjeter te shkrimit mund anashkalojn dhe te shkojn drejt tek pjesa e fjaleve.
Mano nuk ndodhet nė linjė   Pėrgjigju pėrmes citimit
i vjetėr 10-11-2011, 19:58   #2
Mano
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Objektiviteti, senci I Drejtesise, Vullneti per te jetur nje jete te Denje, Kurioziteti dhe Etja per dituri Jane elementet perberes me kryesor per formimin e individit, karakterit dhe dhe kulturimit te tij. Kenaqesia qe nje liber jep me nuancat, tregimet, figurat, personazhet qe paraqiten qe perfytyrohen apo zbukurohen nga mendja e lexuesit krijojn nje bote terheqese dhe impresionante. Nje udhetime aq I vacant sa vet Individi qe lexon ate. Njeriu eshte ne kerkim te vazhdueshem te identitetit te tij te vertet, qe kur lind e deri sa ai eshte I kenaqur me arritjet e tij ne jete, d.m.th pjesea me e madhe e jetes se tij eshte nje odise e vertet. Sigurisht nje sipermarje e tille paraqet veshtiresite e veta, por eshte e domosdoshme per cilindo qe synon nje jet dinjitoze dhe te frytshme jo vetem ne aspektin personal por edhe ate shoqeror. Gjate udhetimit ne kete rruge te mundshme, shpesh here perballet ne kundervajte me “rrymen” dhe ligjet e fuqishme te percaktuara nga Natyra dhe faktori Njeri . Sa me kohe te kete kaluar aq me e ashper eshte “rryma” dhe aq me e veshtire behet kundervajtja dhe udhetimi neper analet e se kaluares, sidomos kur gjurmet e pakta qe kan ngelur jane te mbuluara nga pluhuri I kohes. Gjurme te paqarta qe nga nje here, qellimisht, cojn ne drejtim te gabuar. Nje nga gjurmet me te rendesishme qe nje popull ka lene eshte gjuha dhe historia e tij. Guha eshte nje testamen, nje thesar I vertet per ruajtjen dhe trashegimin e indentitetit te nje populli. Le te hedhim nje sy te shpejt dhe te ceket ne drejtimin e gjuhes…

Existon nje material per historine dhe gjuhen Shqipe, por fatekeqsisht shkrimet jane te percipta dhe ne rastin me te mire Spekulime. Ne pamje te par nxisin interes, por ne te vertet sjellin shume pak. Kjo ndodh sepse autoret Jane shpeshe here Te keqinformuar dhe ne rastin me Te mire nuk njohin, historine dhe folesine e saj ne nevelin qe u nevoitet. Keshtu shpesh here me dashje apo pa dashje krijone nje “indentitet” te percudnuar. Kur flitet per historine e shqiperise dhe gjith ate qe ajo perfaqeson, ndodh nje gje e cuditshme. Ne qoftese shkencetaret, gjuhetaret ne pergjithesi, kritikojn ose nuk jane plotesisht dakort me pikpamjet e njeritjetrit rreth nje studimi, enigme apo ceshtje te vecant , ne rastin e shqiperise dhe gjuhes se saj akademiket jane kundershtare te ashper madje mund te them edhe te armiqesuar me njeri tjetrin deri diku. Disa mendojn se shqipetaret dhe gjuha e tyre I kane rrenjet tek populli I lashte I pellasgeve, dhe nje pjese tjeter pretendon se ata kan ardhur nga Kaukazi gjate mesjetes. Pra ato shkrime sado pak qe jane, jane ne kundershtime te plot me njera tjetren. Dhe ne shumicen e rasteve jane spekulime nga ato me absurde. Pra studiuesit, gjuhetaret, historianet qe jane te ndare ne dy shkolla mendimi te ndryshme: pro hipotezez pellazgjike dhe ata pro hipotezes plotesisht absurde te Kaukazit jane pothujse te pakten 5000 vjet lag njeri tjetrit. Prandaj ai qe deshiron te shfletoj keto libra I nevoitet nje durim I hekurt, dhe nje arsye shume e shendoshe. Per mendimin tim arsyeja e shendoshe eshte nje nga velgar me te rendesishme qe mund te zbuloj ose zbardh pak drit ne misteret e shumta qe jane “krijuar” rreth histories se Shqiperise, gjuhes dhe popullit te saj…


Sic dihet populli yne ashtu dhe gjuha e tij pati goditje te ashpra me nje ritem te panderprere pothuajse per 2000 vjet rresht. Gjate kesaj kohe huazoj shume fjale qe me kalimin e kohes zune vend perfundimisht ne fjalorin e saj, por me vone edhe ndertuan vjale te tjera “shqipe” me to. Disa albanolog mendojn huazimi eshte nje lloj “pasurie”, nje testament historike qe verteton kontaktet dhe mardhenjet midis popujve te ndryshem, jetegjatesine e marrdhenjeve te tilla deri ne huazim reciprok fjalesh, qofshin ato te imponuara me dhune apo te ndertuara ne kohe paqe dhe ne menyre reciproke. Fus “pasuri” ne thonjeza sepse ajo me te vertet u pasura deri diku, pa dienin se gjindra vite me vone kjo “pasuri” do ti kushtonte luftra te shumta dhe te ashpera per te ruajtur autoktonine e vertet te tij ne rajon dhe perfundimisht padrejtesite te shumta qe u ben me percaktimin e kufijeve territoriale. Ne fakt ajo u “pasurua” aq shume saqe gjate periudhes se “rilindjes” elementi extreme anti-shqiptare perdori Huazimet si nje e “vertet” e pakundershtueshme qe populli shqiptare, ashtu si dhe gjuha e tij, nuk eshte azgje tjeter vecse nje perzierje popujsh te ndryshem dhe me shumice “turq” prandaj ata nuk meritojn Shtetin e tyre dhe aq me teper te vetqeverisen. Panvaresisht mentaliteteve extreme qe kan shtremberuar dhe akoma vazhdojn te shtremberojn historine e vertet, nuk existon asnje gjuhe, te pakten ne continentin Evropian, qe te jet krejtsisht e “paster” pa huazime. Disa kane me pak disa me shume! Keshtu qe sote percaktimi I vjetersise se vertet te nje gjuhe nuk varet nga “pastertia” e saj por sa te vjetra jane fjalet e saj autoktone…

Sa me heret nje gjuhe te jete dokumentuar aq me e vjeter konsiderohet. Ky percaktim jo I drejt vetvetiu hap rruge spekulimeve dhe keqkuptimeve te shumta. Vetem shkrimi dhe dokumentimi I nje gjuhe nuk munden te vertetojn perfundimisht vjetersine e saj mbi gjuhet qe nuk jane shkruajtur heret. Qe nje percaktime I till te jete I sakt duhen marr parasysh disa factor te ndryshem si historia, kultura, traditat, arkiologjia, antropologjia etj, etj, si dhe ndikimi qe nje popull mund te ket pasur tek te tjeret dhe anasjelltash. Expertet mendojn se nji nga gjuhet me te vjetra eshte Sankritishtja. Kjo e fundit ka qene plotesisht nje “gjuhe letrash” ose gjuhe “artificjale” Ketu futet Greqishtja dhe Latinishtja. Gjuha “e letrave” ne shumicen e rasteve eshte poltesisht e ndertuar me fjale te “huazuara” nga bagazhi I gjuhes “natyrore”. Keshtu, kur nje fjale e huazuar nga gjuha “natyrore” ka nje kuptim konkret, ne gjuhen artificjale shnderrohet ne nje koncept abstract ose figurative. P.sh. Fjala “Lidh/leth” shnderrohet ne Logos dhe pastaj rihuazohet si“llogjik”, Kap-Kup shnderrohet Cup,Cap dhe rihuazohet Nga “capire” ne Kuptoj; Fryn-Furtun ne Fortuna(Fat)qe nen kutpon ajo qe te bie era, pra rastesia. Gjate zhvillimit te vazhdueshem gjuha artificial arrin ne nje metamorfoze te plote saqe rrenjet e fjaleve jane pothuajse te panjohura. Kur ajo arrin “kompletimin” e saj eshte shnderruar ne nje gjuhe te pasur dhe eficente. Keto gjuhe u ngriten ne nje nivel te lart duke u bere pjese e civilizimeve te ndryshme nga ato me te sukseshemit, dhe me afatgjatet. Kjo ka qene edhe arsyeja per zhdukjen e tyre perfundimisht. Civilizimet e ndryshme erdhen dhe shkuan, lane gjurmet e tyre ne popullsite qe sunduan, madje edhe formuan disa gjuhe te reja. Megjithese jetagjatesia e tyre ne disa raste ishte shume shekullore nuk arriten te zevendesonin plotesisht gjuhen e popujve qe sunduan, gjuhen popullore ose vulgare sic etikoheshin nga elitat e perandorive. Ketu vetvetiu lind puetja, kush eshte gjuha “natyrale” qe formoj gjuhen apo gjuhet “artificiale”? Disa gjuhetar jane te mendimit se kjo gjuhe eshte pikerisht Shqipja. Shqipja edhe sote e kesaj dite eshte nje nga gjuhet me origjinale “natyrore” ne krahasim me gjuhet e tjera te familjes Indoeuropiane. Sigurisht kur behen deklarata te tilla duhet mbajtur parasysh “goditjet” e panderprera qe nje gjuhe pason me kalimin e kohes, dhe ne vecanti gjuha Shqipe. Cfar une kuptoj me gjuhe “Natyrore” dhe “Praktike” eshte menyera se si nje gjuhe eshte e ndertuar. Gjuha shqipe sa do e bukur ne tingull, sa do e nderlikuar ne perberje dhe sa do praktike ne shqiptim dhe domethenie eshte ende rrelativish e pa zhvilluar.

Shqipja ka shume fjale te thjeshta, dhe konceptet qe ato paraqesin jane akoma te varfera. Nji nga dallimet me karakteristike te gjuhes shqipe jane fjalet rrenje dhe derrivatet, te cilat kan nje rrjedh te jashzakonshme ne krahasim me gjuhet e tjera Indo-Evropjane. Kjo gjuhe qendron mbi nje themel shume-mijevejcaresh e cila u krijua nga nevoja e njeriut per te komunikuar dhe thjeshtesuar jeten e tij te perditshme, dhe nga vete natyra eshte praktike dhe e thjeshte. Formimi I gjuehes eshte rasti me tipik I thenies “Nevoja eshte nena e gjithe shpikjeve”. Ne qoftese gjuha “natyrore” tregone gjendjen e thjeshte te popullsive ne kohet e lashta , ajo artificiale tregon zhvillimin e tij. Pra gjuha “artificiale” nuk eshte asgje tjeter vecse nje transformim metamorfoze e plote e gjuhes popullore “Natyrore”. Fillimisht gjuhet artificialne ne formen e tyre fillestare egzisonin si nendialekte te gjuhes mem, dhe me kalimin e kohes evoluan, u tjetersuan ne gjuhe plotesisht te ndryshme. Gjurmet e ketij transformimi jane lene me se miri ne rruget e shvillmit, evoluimit, te dhjetra gjuheve te ndryshme. Gjurme qe edhe sote e kasaj dite gjenden brenda qindra fjaleve te perbashketa qe keto gjuhe kane. Megjithese keto gjuhe u tjetersuan dhe gradualisht degezuan gjethet e veta, prap ato ne thellesi qendrojn ne te njejtat rrenje dhe trunge qe mbeshteti zhvillimin e tyre deri ne nevelin e pavaresise. Une besoj se karakteristika te tilla te lashta jane nje testament I gjalle I strehuar tek popujt sote modern. Karakteristika qe u trasheguan drejt per drejt nga njera gjenerate tek tjetra ne nje rrjedhe kohe te pa nderprere per dhjetra Mileniume dhe ndoshta me tej. Kjo rrjedh “gjarjesh” eshte plotesisht ne perputhje me perpjekejet dhe sakrificat e parezervuara qe nje individ apo nje popull ben per te ruajtur ate qe I mohoet me shume. Identitetin e tij dhe gjithe ate qe strehoet Brenda tij. Historia e popullit shqiptare eshte mbushur me sakrifica te tilla. Per njeriun “objective” hipoteza te tilla jane te llogjikshme dhe te pranueshme si Mundesi qe egzistojn. Fatkeqsisht objektiviteti eshte nje VIRTYT qe fitohet me shume mundim. Subjektiviteti(Egoizmi) eshte nje VES I lindur tek njeriu. Ky I fundit eshte nje krijese plotesisht e komanduar nga instinktet e fuqishme te natyres qe si synim ka vetem mbijetesen dhe prezervimin e cdo qenie qe jeton ploteisht per inerci dhe jashte “vullnetit” . Duke filluar qe nga bacteria deri tek Njeriu. Ky I fundit edhe pse eshte I paisur me Trurin qe ka fuqi te mendoj, kalkuloj, preceptoj etj, etj, dhe mbi te gjitha karakteristiken me dalluese te tij “vetedijen” eshte plotesisht I mposhtur nga Vullneti per te mbijetuar dicka qe eshte plotesisht jashte kontrollit te tij. Kjo gjendje patetike e njeriut e ule ate instinktivisht ne rrangun me te ulet te shkalles se moralit dhe ne te njejten kohe me te rrezikshmin dhe me kercenuesin per vazhdimesine species se vet. Njeriu eshte nje paradoks I mirefillt! Fakti me konkret per kete , jane luftrat dhe manipulimet e shumta qe jane bere ne territorin e Ballkanit gjate gjithe koherave. Ballkani u kthye sic thote populli, ne nje “corb” te vertet. Shqiperia u gjet ne qendren e ketij kaosi, qe si nje bishe e pangopur arriti ta lincoj pothuaj se deri ne zhdukje te plot.

Fatemiresisht njerezit kan lene gjurmet e tyre ne menyrat me te thjeshta. Shpesh here keto gjurme gjehen ne Monumentet e shumta dhe Toponimet e ndryshme qe jane trasheguar brez pas brezi. Keto te fundit shqesh here emertoheshin sipas karakteristikes natyrore te tyre. P.sh. ne Cameri egziston nje vend qe quhet “dimaluma” dhe mendohet se eshte I perbere nga fjalet shqipj “di+male” ne qofte se nuk gabohem jane ose dy male ose ne mes te dy maleve. Fjala Cameria vet vjen nga lumi “Tsiamis”, I pari eshte perdorur dhe akoma perdoret vetem nga banoret e ketyre trojeve, pra shqipetaret. Brindizi ne itali ka qen qytet Ilir I ndertuar dhe banuar nga ata. Ne hartat e lashta gjeografia “figura “ e tij ngjan me koken e drerit dhe del fjala “Brin-Briri” dhe quhet “brindizi”.

Ne serbi apo maqedone egziston nje varg malesh qe quhen Bora, mendohet se kjo vjen nga fjala Bora e shqipes, mendohet see ka prejardhjen nga fjala Bardh, sote e kesaj dite ka dialekte qe shqiptojn a te “Bordh” qe I aferohet fjales “Bor” Fjala Argjend dikur “arg” do te thonte I “bardh” pra argjendi ka qen quajtur thjesh dicka e bardh pra dhe ne shqipe ka ngelur “Arg-gjend” (gje e bardh). Nga ky kemi marr edhe emerin qe nga kohet e lashta Arg, Arb, Alb, qe te gjitha kane te njejtin kuptim qe nenkupton “I bardh”. Me cfar kam par deri tani nje shumice fjalesh qe ka huazuar shqipja jane ne rrenjen e tyre fjale shqipe dhe qe me kalimin e kohes jane ri-marre ne formen e huaj. Kjo bindje me eshte perforcuar edhe me shume kur hasa tek disa shkrime te Cabejt qe paraqet fjale te zbuluara nga albanology N.Joklin qe thote se fjala “ulluk” I eshte marr shqipes nga turqishtja. Rrenja e kesaj eshte Luk-u, Lug-u, dhe nepermjet turqishtes eshte perhapur ne ballkan dhe rikthyer shqipes me fjallen Ulluk. Nje fjale tjeter e shqipes qe eshte perhapur ne ballkan eshte fjala “Bes” qe gjendet pothuajse ne shumicen e gjuheve ne ballkan, te pakten ne nje periudh.

Duhen mbajtur parasysh disa ndryshime te fonetikes se shqipes neper koherat, gje qe do te vlej kur te shikojm fjalet e mbledhura . Kjo gje do ti bej keto fjala te “huaja ne pamje te par” me te pranishme per shqipefolesin. Fillimisht ne gjuhen shqipe ka egzistuar “kl” dhe “gl”: (klaj, gluhe) me vone L ka rene dhe “K”zevendesohet me “q” : (Kiaj, gjuhe), dhe ne perfundim “kj” ne “Q” dhe ne te njejten menyre “Gl” ne “gj” por edhe ne “C” (celes): ndryshimin e fonetikes se shqipes do ti ilustroj me dy shembuj: Katundi Gruemire ne very ne shekullin e XV eshte quajtur Gouemire ardhur nga fjala Grua qe dikur eshte shkruajtur “growa-groua” . Per ata qe dine anglishten eshte veshtire mos te kujtohet fjala “grow” qe do te thote “rrit” rritet barku, rriten floket, rriten pemet, kete kuptim. Fjala Diell nendialektet e gegerishtes shqiptohet “Dill” dhe dikur kjo mund te jet perdorur per Diellin qe nenkupton doli, doli drita, doli ai, dhe me von eshte ndruar Diell. Ashtu sic nje here dielli eshte quajtur edhe “ Polli”. Sinonimi I fjales “lind” besoj se shqipja e ka pas keto sinonime gjat gjithe kohes. Fjala lind nenkupton > te lesh, lere, lene, shkeputet, ndahet, pra kur njeriu lind ai/ajo, lind, ndahet, eshte tashme e/I lire nga trupi I nenes, ne te njejten menyre lind edhe idea. “Phantazise” , kjo e fundit vjen nga folja me “Pa”, Pra fantasia ne thelb nuk eshte gje tjeter vec se aftesia e trurit, per te “fantazuar=par=shikuar” per ti par gjerat ne vetvete se pari dhe pastaj perpunohen , filtrohen dhe perfundohen ane te procesit te llogjikes. Fjalet Phantazia dhe Phantazem, ne thelbin e tyre jane fjale shqipe.

Disa fjale te shqipes te "huazuara"

Pretendohet se shumica e fjaleve shqipe jane ne shumice te huazuara dhe qe jane marr nga Latinishtja, italishtja,Greqishtja ne vecanti fjale Turke qe sic dihet u morren gjat sundimit Osmane. Gustav Meyer mbahet si nji nga Albanologet me te shquar dhe I pari qe ka perpiluar nje fjalor shqiptar etimologjik. Shumica e Fjaleve qe u mblodhen nga Meyer I perkesnin popullsive qe jetonin jashte “kufijeve etnike” te vendit ne ate kohe. Si perfundim ka mbledhur reth 5400 fjale te cilat I ndan keshtu: 4000 fjale jane te huaja, qe I perkasin shume gjuheve si: Greq, Sllv, Serb, Bull, Rum, Lat, It. Spnj. 300 nga trungu I Indo-Europeanes, dhe 700 nuk I ka gjetur dote fillin. Permenda me par shqipja ka shume fjale te huazuara dhe akoma vashdon te huazoj fjale qe jane te veshtira te shqiptohen edhe pse ne kemi fjal paralele te shqipes. Por Meyer na nxjer te huazuara disa fjale, qe une mendoj se jane baza e shqipes, fjale si 1.” Une” e “marre” nga italishtja apo latinishta Unus= Uno, ne fakt fjala Unus dhe Uno kan ardhe nga shqipja “U” qe me vone iu shtua mbaresa “ne” si ne U-ne, Ti-ne. Ketu hyn edhe fjala “Eshte” qe pretendohet se eshte marr nga Latinishtja Est: 3.”Lufte” qe eshte “marr” nga Lat. Lucta: 4.Drejt nga Lat. Directus: 5.Fytyre/ftyre nga Lat. Factura: 6. Mbret/Mbreteresh nga Lat.Imperatore: 7. Shendet/shnet nga Lat. Sanitosus: Kujt/ I kujt/ky/kush nga Lat.Cuius: 8.Liroj/Liri nga Lat. Deliberate: 9. Martese/martoj nga Lat.Maritatio: 10. Dem/demtoj nga Lat.Damnitare: 11.Detyre nga Lat. Debitura: 12. Paqetyre nga Lat. Pagitura: 13.Shembelltyre nga Lat. Similatura: Disa fjale te tjera qe jane pranuar si huazime te Latinishtes:

Pjeset e Trupit: Floke, Koke, Mendje, Faqe, Fytyre, Shpatull, Fshike, Kembe, Kofshe, Gjender-Gjander, Shendet, Shendoshe.

Shtepiake: Shtepi, Kulm, Tra, Qeper, Gelqere, Pellas “pallat”, Port, Mur, Tjegull, shkamb, Furre.

Kafshe shtepiake: Qen, Pule, Gjel, Lepur, Pellumb, Kafshe

Arme Lufte: Lufte, Arm, Shpat, Shqyt, Shigjet, Mbroj

Jeta shoqerore: Fqinj, Mik, Armik-Anmik, Shok, Sherbes, Mjeshter, Mjek, Gjind, Qytet, Pushtet, Mbret.

Shikojm disa nga fjalet me afer: Floke/Fjoket –filli-fijet-fjoket e Kokes: Koke -koker-gogel-kokerric (latinisht koka eshte Caput-dhe italisht Testa): Fytyr/Ftyra= eshte e future sic jane tiparer e fytyres jane te shtypura jane te futura: Mbret= eshte ai qe ruan (me rujt=mret/mbret )mbron, ruan-mbreteron, mbron, rron, ruan jeten: Fshike eshte imitimi I shurmes qe ben thurpra ose fshikulla prandaje kemi edhe fjalet, fishkellim, fshikull, tingulli qe del nga deget e holla te pemes kur fryn ere e fort: Martes eshte kur gruaja merret ose shkon ne familjen e burrit, dhe merret, dhe anasjelltas. Liri/Liroj =eshte me Lan, le, lere, leshoje. Dam/Demtoj eshte me da, me nda, ndamja/carja e lekures dhe mevone kuptimi eshte edhe zgjeruar. Shigjet =e Gjat, ne krahasim me thiken apo shpaten.

Pushtet= Posht, eshte ne krye qe zapton ka pushtuar, ka vene Posht nenshtruar, pra Pushton ve posht.: Mure= qe mund te vije nga fjalet me+ruaj=merujt=Mur. Trau= Dru, trung trup, si dicka qe lidh, trupi-koken me kembet, trungu-rrenjet me deget: Mjeshter= mund te vij nga fjala mosh, I moshuar I motshem ne profesionin e tij, dhe qe ka arritur ne kulm ose ne maj te profesionit: Kafsh= mund te vij nga kafsho kafshon. Disa fjale te tjera qe pretendohet te jet te huazuara: “Vet/auto” mund ti perkasi disa gjuheve, svll, latin, Ind vj: Blegeris/bjegera na dalin si sllv dhe greke, keshtu qe edhe delet e shqiperis blegerisin ose “flasin” Sllavisht dhe Greqisht”: “Pjell,” del si fjal Greke, dhe kjo e fundit “Deshperim” vjen nga Lat. It. Desidere. Une mendoj se Fjalet Une, Vet, Krye, dhe Sy jane fjale themeluese dhe nga keto jane nxjerr shume te tjera ne shqipe! Per cudi keto dy te fundit Sy dhe krye/koke nuk figurojn ne fjalrin e Gustav Meyer. Se pari shikojm fjalen “Une” shqip dhe italisht. Nga “une” dalin keto fjale Nje, (uno)njesoj(stesso) ,njit/ngjit (Colla, incollara),njoh, (conoscere)injorant,injoroj(ignorante,ignorare) Keto fjale jo vetem qe nuk kane lidhje me shqipen por edhe me njera tjetren. Fjala Ignorante I afrohet shqipes dhe ka si baze fjalen njoh. Ignorante. Shkronja “Nj” ne italishte shkruet “gn” ashtu si Bagni=banjo, (Njom aty ku bej njomjen). Nga fjala “krye” del kre/krye/koke (testa) , kreret, krijoj(creare),kryesi,kryetar( Capo) krevat-aty ku vekoken( leto, strato{ te shtrihesh ne italisht eshte Posare}),kryej(finite): nga vjala “Vet” del Vetem/vetmi, (solo/solitudine), vecoj,vetesoj(separare) ,vi, ( venire)vin,(cam’mino) vete,vata, ndoshta evitoj dhe vullnet. Nga syt/sy (occhio), shikoj(vedere-guardare), shikim, synoj(scopo), shenjester(mira,bersaglio). Tani te shikojm edhe fjalen Deshire, qe fjen nga Dua, (volere) qe nxjerr edhe keto fjal, deshire (desidere). Dashamires(adorabile) dashuri(amore), I dashur (affetuosso) ndjenj(sentiment), ndiej(sentire). Fjala “Pjell” nuk lidhet me italishten por thuhet qe esthe fjal e huaj, gje qe ka mundesi, por le ta shikojm pak me afer domethenien dhe perdorimin e saj ne gjuhen shqipe. Fjala pjell zakonisht perdoret per kafshet por nje here eshte perdorur edhe per njerezit. Fjala pjell, ne nje kohe te larger eshte perdorur edhe per te pershkruar lindjen ( e djellit). Kjo fjal “Pjell” ne nje forme te tjetersuar, per hire te analizes, perdoret sote ne gjuhen vulgare per organin sexual te femres, dhe une mendoj se kjo eshte prejardhja, burimi kryesor I kesaj fjale, sepse ky organ eshte nje mjet qe bie (Sjell-Pjell). Aty mbillet, pillet dhe “sillet/sjell” ne bote nje jet. Kjo analize dhe koncept bie plot ne perputhje edhe me Apollon, qe fillimisht ka qene zoti I kenges, artit etj, ky ka qene qendra dhe krijesa e ketyre te fundit, ky ka qene ai qe I ka Pjell/polli keto ide dhe burime. Me von ai u lidh me djellin edhe kety mund ti pershtatim conceptin e pjelljes, me kuptimin e fjales “lind” sic perdoret sote, aty ku lind/ pjell/poll/ dolli/dilli/ djelli. A(nga)Pollo(Pjell/Poll) ai qe ndricon gjithcka.

Disa rreshta perreth Gjuhes PIE-ne

Tani erdhi koha per te prekur pak ne te ashtu quajtur gjuha Proto- Indo- Europiane dhe gradualisht lidhja e saj me gjuhen shqipe. Ky eshte thelbi I gjithe keti shkrimi. Dua te hap kete shkrim me nje artikull qe paraqet mundesin e egzistences se “gjuhes se lasht PIE”. Zberthimi dhe “rindertimi” I kesaj gjuhe eshte ber duke marr si model Greqishten e vjeter, Latinishten, Sankritishten, dhe disa gjuhe te tjera, por bazat jane gjithmone tre te parat.

“Proto-Indo-European language”

The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the unattested,
reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European
languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. The existence
of such a language has been accepted by linguists for over a
century, and reconstruction is far advanced and quite detailed.
Scholars estimate that PIE may have been spoken as a single
language (before divergence began) around 4000 BC, though
estimates by different authorities can vary by more than a
millennium. The most popular hypothesis for the origin and
spread of the language is the Kurgan hypothesis, which
postulates an origin in the Pontic-Caspian steppe of Eastern
Europe and Western Asia. In modern times the existence of the
language was first postulated in the 18th century by Sir
William Jones, who observed the similarities between Sanskrit,
Ancient Greek, and Latin. By the early 1900s well-defined
descriptions of PIE had been developed that are still accepted
today (with some refinements).

As there is no direct evidence of Proto-Indo-European
language, all knowledge of the language is derived by
reconstruction from later languages using linguistic techniques
such as the comparative method and the method of internal
reconstruction. PIE is known to have had a complex system of
morphology that included inflections (adding prefixes and
suffixes to word roots, as is common in Romance languages),
and ablaut (changing vowel sounds in word roots, as is
common in Germanic languages). Nouns used a sophisticated
system of declension and verbs used a similarly sophisticated
system of conjugation. The following entry has been found in List of Proto-Indo- European nouns
[*deiw-os god, i.e. 'shining'”]


Kjo ishte vetem nje pjes e vogel e artikullit qe une mora per te ilustruar se si dhe cfar metodash jane perdorur per te zberthyer dhe rindertuar gjuhen PIE’ne. Arikulli I plot, qe ka shume gjera interesante, mund gjehet te kjo adres: http://www.scribd.com/doc/38946558/T...opean-Language


Ne kete artikull behen shume krahasime dhe spekulime dhe ajo qe dua te theksoj ne lidhje me kete eshte mos permendja e shqipes. Albanologet objective kan konstatuar, se mbi te gjitha karakteristikat qe shqipja zoteron, ajo qe e ben ate pjestare te familjes Indo-europianistike jane fjalet autoktone. Me ben pershtypje mos permendja e saj fare. Per mendimin tim studimi I shqipes nga njerez competent mund konkretizoj shume nga hipotezat dhe spekulimet e shumta qe behen ne fushen e studimit te gjuhes PIE’ne.

Per shembull le te shikojm fjalen, [*deiw-os= god, =i.e. 'shining' ] artikulli e lidh fjalen [“Deiw-os”] me [“Dieu”] dhe thote se “Deiw-os”, ne shume gjuhe do te thote Zot, eshte adoptimi I Fjales[ “Dieu”] qe dikur ka qen zoti I qiellit dhe sipas artikullit shumica e gjuheve Indo-Europjane jan formuluar rreth keti concepti. Dihet qe ne kohet e lashta njerezit ishin pagan dhe besonin ne objekete te ndryshme natyrore, pa nje qender. Por me gjithe ate dielli ka pasur nje rendesi te vacant dhe me evoluimin e njeriut dhe filozofis se ti arriti qe dikur te viheshte ne qender. Evoluimi vashdoj, dhe si rrjedhim zoti u personifikua dhe figura e tij e dikurshme, e diellit, u transformua.

Une mendoj se “Dieu”, qe ne disa gjuhe me reperberjen ose regrupimin e shkronjave do te thote ndricim, eshte pikerisht Dielli. Fjala diell, ne shqipe, eshte plotesisht ne perpudhje me conceptin “Dieu”. Le ta shikojm me afer Diellin dhe Zotin dhe nderlidhja e tyre. Kur flasim per zotin nenkuptojm nje force supernatyrale qe “di” gjithcka dhe Zoteron ghithcka, pra ([Dieu]+ne=Di-u+ne( mbaresa “ne” e fjaleve U[ne], Ti[ne] mendohet te jete shtuare vone)=Diun del dhe fjala :”U”ne di, me kuptimin qe une di ghithcka dhe jame fuqi plot). Figura e zotit gjithmone nenkupton [ndricim]. Gje qe vihet re shume kollaj tek freskot apo pikturat e ndryshme qe personifikojn ate. Keto figura, Zoti dhe te gjitha figurt e tjetea te shenjta, paraqiten me nje rreth(mbrapa kokes) qe gjason diellin dhe duket si nje kuror e bere me rreze dielli. Nje lidhje tjeter eshte dita e [Djel] qe eshte dita e [diellit], bie ne perputhje me legjenden qe zoti krijoj boten ne 6 dite dhe te 7 ai pushoj, dhe dita e shtate iu kushtua ati. Por kjo nuk mbaron ketu, ne shqipe une mendoj se Dielli ose “Dilli” ka krijuare disa koncepte te tjera : Di, Drit, Dituri, Ndricim, Dritare, mendoj se mund te lidhim ketu edhe Djal-Djalosh. Dihet qe gjat civilizimeve de ndryshme lindja e djalit ka qene e preferuar. Mashkulli ne ate kohe ka qene fuqiplot dhe trashgimtar I cdo gjeje. Pra ardhja e djalit ne jete ishte nje gezim I vacant, ishte nje shpres, nje drite nje rreze dielli nje avantazhe, nje mundesi per te mbi jetuar cdo eveniment, mundesi edhe per te trashguar, pasurin, mbreterin, fisin dhe emerin e familjes.


Perqindja e fjaleve te huazuara ne cdo gju te botes eshte shume e vogel ne krahasim me perqindjen e fjalve autoktone. Dhe me kalimin e kohes zevendesohen pothuajse plotesisht me fjale te gjuhes autoktone. Ne shqipe sipas gjuhetareve te ndritur behet nje perjashitm i vacant, sic ndodh shume here kur flitet per shqipetare dhe gjuhetn e tyre. Na del se ne shqipe ndodh e kunderta. Ajo na del nje gjuhe plotesisht e huazuar dhe pjesa autoktone eshte aq e paket sa qe mund te jete e paperfillur. Na del se shqipja ka fjale te huazuara nga keto gjuhe: Greqishten e vjetr, mesme dhe e re, Latinishtja, Italishtja, Frengjishtja, Spanjishtja, Portugalishtja, Dalmatishjta, Turqishtja, Gjermanishtja, Sllavishtja, Sankritishtja, Indishtja, Keltishtja pothuajse te gjitha gjuhet e evropes e me tej! Ketu lind pytja: cilat fjale te gjuhes shqipe jane autoktone? Duket se studies te ndryshem dhe, gjuhetaret, kane pranuar shume hipoteza te huaja per etimologjine dhe huazimet e shqipes nga gjuhet te tjera. Keto huazim jane pranuar dhe konsideruar si nje pasuri per gjuhen shqipe, dhe jo si nje varferi dhe prapambetje qe ato I bejne gjuhes autoktone. Keto jane fjale parasite qe ushqehen ne trupin e huaj dhe nuk e lene te zhvillohet. Sic kame permendur me par edhe pse shume nga kto fjale jane marr si te huaja, ne thelb ato kane rrenje shqipetare pra jan ri-huazuar nga shqipja ne nje forme te huaj. Ky mosdallim I shkaktone shqipes nje copetim te trupit te saj gjeri sa behet e panjohur.

Per Shembull: Fjala “Individual “ (individ) qe vjen nga Latinishtja In (Pa-) +divicuus qe vjen nga Dividere qe ka si rrenje fjalen PIE * Da (qe do te thot me nda ose pjestu). individi sipas disa gjuhetareve do te thote eshte dicka e pandare, me kuptimin qe eshte nji the nuk ndahet. Ne siperfaqe kjo ka kuptim, por ne praktike dhe parim eshte kontradiktore. Cfar kuptohet kur mendon per fjalen individ? Me fjalen idivid kuptohet dicka unike, nje entitet qe eshte I ndar nga grupi, dhe eshte I vetem. Le te hym pak me thelle dhe shohim se si individi mund te ndahet edhe fizikisht , me ane te riprodhimit. Fara e tij ne rrethana te pranueshme krijon nje individ tjeter. Ketu ndodh edhe nje paradox. Shumimi I njeriut behet pikerisht me “ndarjen ose Pjesetimin” e tij, dhe “cuditerisht” ai arrin te mos zvogelohet ose te humb permasen e tij fizike qe kishte perpara “pjesetimit ose ndarjes” se tij. Kur foshnja eshte ende ne trupin e nenes konsiderohet si nji me nenen dhe kur lind krijon nje entitet krejtesish fizikisht te shkeputur, edhe vet fjala me lind nenkupton ndarje, P.sh Me lan/te lesh, me liru/ te lirosh, me leju/te lejosh. Te gjitha keto fjale nenkuptojn nje ndarje.

Rrenja e fjales Individ eshte me Da=nda: Fjala “da-dan-ndan” dhe si rrjedhim numri dy ose di sic thuheshte me perpara. Concepti I pjestimit mund te jete marr nga kjo ide. Fjala “Di=dy ” mendoj se eshte marr nga shqipje sepse ajo formon disa koncepte kuptimplote: p.sh “Di=dy, me da=nda, dermoj=dyfishoj,dyshoj etj etj…”. Ne shqipe keto veprime jan shume kuptimlote dhe te natyrshme kurse ne gjuhet e tjera jane te sforcuara dhe nga nje here kontradiktore sic eshte per mendimint tim ajo qe paraqita me fjalen “individ”. Ne konklusion une mendoj se fjala individ dhe koncepti qe I kan pershtatur jane kontradiktore sepse gjuhet qe e adoptuan e huazuan ate nga nje gjuhe tjeter(Shqipja), me kalimin e kohes humbi domethenjen e vertet dhe se fundi perfundoj te keqperdoret.

Klasifikimi I gjuheve dhe fjalet e tyre te ngjajshme me shqipen

Tani dua te prezantoj dy sisteme qe ndajn gjuhet indo-europeane, Satem(lindore) dhe Kentum(perndimore). Keto te dhena jane marr nga libri “studime te gjuehes shqipe- Eqerem Cabej”. Ne sistemin Kentum hyne greqishtja, Italike, keltike, gjermanishte, hetitishtja dhe to****shtja: dhe keto ruajn karakterin Gutural te tyre (k dhe g) por edhe ne “d” Ne Satum keto ndrohen ne Spirante, dhe ne shqipe keto ndrohet nga “ k ne th” dhe nga “ g ne dh”. P.sh Lat, Acidus (Akidus) shnderohet ne Athet: Lat,Greq-Lego . shq ( mbe)ledh –zgjedh, Lat: gener-dhender Lat, himes, shq=dimer.

Nje tjeter per tu permendur eshte “o” qe mendohet se ne gjuhet Kentum(veriore) eshte shnderuar ne “a”, gje qe eshte ruajtur ne gjuhet Satem(lindje) sic jante : Shq nate, Lit, naktis, Gjerm, nacht ne krahasim me Lat nox noctis, Irl innocht dhe fjala Lat os ossis, Greq osteon, dhe shq ashte eshtra. Po ashtu shqipje e pregjigjet ” F” latine dhe ” Ph” greke me “B” qe e afron kete gjuh me Ilirishten, Trakishten, Maqedonishten dhe Trako-Frigishten, tashem te gjitha keto gjuhe te vdekura. Por kjo gje e lidhe shqipen me shume gjuhe te tjera sic jane gjuhet Keltike, gjermanike, Sllavike, Balltike, Armenishten, Iranishten, hetitishten, Tokanishten.

P.sh Indi, vje: Bharami “sjell” Lat- fero, greq-phero, Got-baira, Sllav vjeter kishtare- bera- berate “mbledh”, Arm-berem, Shq, bar- mbar- bier. Keto karakteristika e cvendosin shqipen nga rendimi I saj si nje gjuhe e perbere nga latinishtja dhe greqishtja edhe pse ka huazuar fjale nga te dyja. Keto karakteristika jane shume te rendesishme dhe duhen mbajtur parasysh kur do te shikojme fjalet e mbledhura. Shikojm disa fjale te gjetura ne librin e Cabejt:

Fjalet te perbashketa me Baltiket dhe disa te tjera I-E’ne:

Cel zjarrin -ndez zjarrin-cel zogj: Lituanisht, skeliu (Caj) skiliu (cel zogj): Letuanisht, skilties (celin zogjt): Djeq-Lit: degu (djeq): Sllv zoq (zhog): Ind vjet dahati ( ai djeg): emer,emen: prusishtja e vjeter- enmen: sllv vje. Ime; Legate Ligate, Lit Liugos (mocal): sllv vje Luza (legate): serbokr-kaljuga(hurdhe): lende lande: lit-lenta ( derras): I lige I semure, I keq: Lit- liga(semundje) greq-oligos (I pak): Mal, let-mala(buze skanj, ane, breg: rum-mal (breg-bregdet) Me Mat ( qe lidhet edhe fjala Mot): Lit metas (kohe vit: Lit mets(periudh,epok, period: prus vje. Metta (Vit)

Fjale te berbashketa me Greqishten:

Bajge, balge: greq-bolbiton: Darke, Drek: greq-dorpon(darke): Dhjam, Greq-demos: Elb, greq-alphi alphiton (drith, elb) Hudher, Hurdhe. Greq-skorodon: Pele, greq polos(Mez): Vene, Vere, greq-oinos: ender, ander, greq-anor: laj, greq-lou: Agon, greq –orphne(erresire):Vend vise, greq.-oudas(truall): neme, name, greq,-nomos (ligj, zakon), nemesis (meri, meri e drejt hakmarrje hyjnore.

Fjale te perbashketa me Armenet:

Bute: arm. Bute( I bute pa maj) : Thep, arm. Sep(thep-maj), ashtu dhe latinisht cippus (shtyll me maj): Zeri, Za, Zani, arm Jain(shqiptohet Xhain) Vene, vere (vera qe pihet) , arm. -Gini( Vere): Ander, arm-anurj: Laj, arm. Laganum(lahem): Agon, arm.-arjn(I murme): Vend Vise,vendit, arm.-getin(truall)

Fjale te perbashketa me Keltet:

Bershe, Gelic-eburo; Gju, glu(prej glun) Irlnd, vje-glun(gju): shqend, kymr, etn(shpend) (qe vjen nga pet): mat “buze lumi, breg” dhe emri I lumit Mat. Irlnd-math (rere): Dem, irlnd.-dam(kau): Pele, irlnd- lair (pele): Neme, name, irlnd vj. Namae (armik)…

Ne perfundim desha te prek pak ne shkrimet e shumta qe jane lene nga historianet klasike por edhe ata me modern per historin e popujve te ndryshem qe kalun neper ballkan dhe perreth. Ne rradhe te pare kur kemi te bejm me nje teme kaq te nderlikuar si historia e shqipetareve dhe gjuha e saj duhet perdorur arsyja. Faktet per kete history jane te pakta dhe ato pak qe gjenden jane te turbullta dhe te shkruajtura ne gjuhe apo alfabete te ndryshem, kryesisht Latin dhe Grek. Dicka e tille e ben akoma me te mjergullt kronologjin e saj. Prandaj ketu duhet perdorur llogjika dhe duhen kulluar shume mbeturina te pa vlefshme qe jan ngurtesuar me kalimin e kohes. Propaganda e klases sunduese gjate gjithe koherave ka bere punen e vete per te hedhur hi mbi te verteten. Greket shkruajten per greqishten gjuhen e tyre, kulturen qe ajo perhapi me zhvillimin dhe zgjerimin e saj. Ata qe nuk ishin pjese e saj queshin “barbare”. Ne boten e tyre nenkuptonte injorance dhe mbrapambetje. Me von dolen Shkrimtaret Rromak qe pak a shume mbajten ison e Grekeve. Ata shkruajten per bemat e Rromes dhe historin e saj te Lavdishme, dhe si Greket dhe Rromaket I quanin te tjeret, ata qe nuk ishin pjes e cultures se tyre, “barbar”. Rromaket fjalen “barbare” e perdornin me kuptim me negative se Greket. Gjate perandorise Rromake “barbare” nenkuptonte nje njeri te pist, I pa edukuar, I pa gdhendur, pa asnje lloj vlere, I pa civilizuar domethene thjesht nje kafsh. Pra keto shkrimtar kan shkruajtur ndonse shume per jeten dhe shoqerine e tyre, jo gjithmone te verteten, por gjithmone ne favor te saj. Kohet e fundit jane bere mjaft zbulime arkiologjike qe tregojn nje bote ndryshe nga ceshte shkruajtur deri tani. Per shembull: Rromaket I konsideronin Keltet (druids) si barbare, por dryshe na del sot. Ne disa zbulime qe jane bere del se Keltet kane qene ne disa aspekte te jetes se tyre me te perparuar dhe me te civilizuar se Rromaket. Ata zoteronin kalendare qe ishin shume me te saket se ato te Rromakeve, dhe keto te fundit per kete arsye nga nje here festonin pranveren ne mes te gushtit.

Ne shoqerine Kelte, perfshi ketu edhe shoqerine Ilire, ka pasur nje barazi mes femres dhe burrit, dicka qe nuk ekzistonte ne perandorine Rromake. Ajo gezonte nje status te lart ne keto shoqeri, mund te trashigonte pasuri madje arrinte te beheshte edhe Mbreteresh, p.sh (Teuta/Tefta). Ata qe nuk ishin te zotet e vetes, gjenin perkrahje tek shoqeria e tyre, pra ekzistonte nje lloj shperblim social, ose pension. Ne librat e historis Rromake shkruhet se Rromaket pushtuan (keltet) per ti mbrojtur ata, por e verteta eshte se Rromaket I shduken Druids dhe u morren te gjithe pasurine, perfshire ketu dhe arin e shumt qe kishin. Pasuri te tilla I nevoiteshin Cezarit per te paguar borxhet e shumta qe kishte hde per zgjerimin e ushtrise. Mos te harrojm se Rromaket I kan quajtur “barbare” edhe Teuten, Gencin, Bardhylin, Pirron etj, madje keta jane quajtur edhe pirate. Keta shkrime ne shumicen e rasteve kan qene nje vegel propaganda e sunduesit. Dihet shume mire se luftimit midis Pellazgo- Ilireve-shqipetareve te lashte dhe rromakeve nuk ka qen per plackitje, pirate, por per mbrojten e trojeve te trye. Qe ata nuk ishin “barbar” dhe “pirate” u vertetua me vone, me dallimin e tyre ne perandorin Rromake si luftetare te dalluar, drejtonin legjione te tera te dalluara, dhe disa arriten te gjisnin shkallet me te larta ne hiarkin e perandorise. Jo vetem kaq por sa here qe nji Gjeneral Ilir beheshte Perandor, Rroma lulezonte dhe ngriheshte ne nje shkalle me te larte. Pra nuk eshte e llogjikshme te mendosh akome se, mbretereshat dhe mbretet “shqiptar” qe njiheshin per talentin dhe aftesite e tyre te vecante ne artin e luftes paskan marre “fjalet e luftes” nga Latinishtja.
Mano nuk ndodhet nė linjė   Pėrgjigju pėrmes citimit
i vjetėr 10-11-2011, 20:28   #3
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Tani erdhi koha per te paraqitur fjalet e mbledhura

Absurdity= late 15c., from M.Fr. absurdité, from L.L. absurditatem (nom. absurditas) "dissonance, incongruity," noun of state from L. absurdus "out of tune;" figuratively "incongruous, silly, senseless," from ab- intens. prefix + surdus (shurdh, ai qe nuk urdherohet s’urdherohet, ai qe nuk degjon: qe nuk merr do urdhera verbalisht.) "dull, deaf, mute" (see susurration).

Abyss= late 14c., earlier abime (c.1300), from L.L. abyssus "bottomless pit," from Gk. abyssos (limne) "bottomless (pool)," from a- "without" (see a- (2)) + byssos ( Abyss= do te thot pa-byth ose thjesht Bosh me kuptimin qe nuk ka fund nuk ka taban)"bottom," possibly related to bathos "depth”.

Act(n)= late 14c., "a thing done," from O.Fr. acte "(official) document," and directly from L. actus "a doing, a driving, impulse; a part in a play, act," and actum "a thing done," originally a legal term, both from agere "to do, set in motion, drive, urge, chase, stir up," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move" (Agim-Agon- me kuptimin drita prin diten,Agon-Aga) (cf. Gk. agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agogos "leader;" Skt. ajati "drives," ajirah "moving, active;" O.N. aka "to drive;" M.Ir. ag "battle.


2. Admire= early 15c. (implied in admired), from M.Fr. admirer (O.Fr. amirer, 14c. (e mire) ), or directly from L. admirari "to wonder at" (see admiration). Noun admirer (mire-e/I mire-mrekulli) is recorded from c.1600; "In common speech, a lover" [Johnson], a sense recorded from 1704

3. Adventure(n)=early 13c., auenture "that which happens by chance, fortune, luck," from O.Fr. aventure (11c.) "chance, accident, occurrence, event, happening," from L. adventura (res) "(a thing) about to happen," from adventurus, future participle of advenire "to come to, reach, arrive at," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + venire "to come"(Vi=Vjen-vijon: qe vjen nga vi/vije, qe vjen nga fjala Vet= Vi/vije nenkupton veten “une”: Vjen=nenkupton ate: ai vjen vet, prap perqendrimi eshte gjithmone tek vetja) (see venue). Meaning developed through "risk/danger" (a trial of one's chances) and "perilous undertaking" (early 14c.) and thence to "a novel or exciting incident" (1560s). The -d- was restored 15c.-16c. Venture is a 15c. variant. As a verb, c.1300, "to risk the loss of;" early 14c. "to take a chance

4. Alb=late O.E. albe, from L.L. alba (in tunica alba or vestis alba "white vestment"), fem. of albus "white," from PIE base *albho- "white" (bardh)(cf. Gk. alphos "white leprosy," alphiton "barley meal;" O.H.G. albiz, O.E. elfet "swan," lit. "the white bird;" O.C.S., Rus. lebedi, Pol. labedz "swan;" Hittite alpash "cloud”.

5. Albion=ancient name of England, O.E., from Latin, sometimes said to be from the non-I.E. base *alb "mountain," which also is suggested as the source of L. Alpes "Alps," Albania, and Alba, an Irish name for "Scotland." But more likely from L. albus "white" (see alb), which would be an apt description of the chalk cliffs of the island's southern coast

6. Alexander= masc. proper name, from Latin, from Gk. Alexandros "defender of men," from alexein "to ward off, keep off, turn (something) away, defend, protect" + aner (Njer/i) (gen. andros) "man" (see anthropo-). The first element is related to Gk. alke "protection, help, strength, power, courage," alkimos "strong;" cognate with Skt. raksati "protects," O.E. ealgian "to defend." As a kind of cocktail, it is attested from 1930

7. Allow= early 14c., "to commend or praise;" late 14c., "recognize or admit" ( te lesh-lejo-lejohet-la, te gjitha keto fjale te permendura me posht vijne nga keto te parat) (a privilege, excuse, etc.) as valid; "sanction, permit;" early 15c., "take into account or give credit for" (of business matters), from Anglo-Fr. alouer, O.Fr. aloer (13c.) "allot, apportion," from L. allaudare, compound of ad- "to" (see ad-) + laudare "to praise;" the Old French word was confused and merged with alouer "assign," from L. allocare (see allocate). From the first word came the sense "permission based on approval," from the second the meaning preserved in allowance. Related: Allowed; allowing

8. Alter= (tjeter-tjetersoj) late 14c., "to change (something)," from O.Fr. alterer "change, alter," from M.L. alterare "to change," from L. alter "the other (of the two)," from PIE *al- (Nalt=Lart)"beyond" + comp. suffix –ter (cf. other). Intransitive sense "to become otherwise" first recorded 1580s. Related: Altered; altering.

9. Am= O.E. eom "to be, to remain," (Mercian eam, Northumbrian am), from PIE *esmi- (Jam-Jemi-Emi) (cf. O.N. emi, Goth. im, Hittite esmi, O.C.S. jesmi, Lith. esmi), from base *es-, the S-ROOT, which also yielded Gk. esti-, (Eshte) L. est, (A/Eshte) Skt. as-, (A-Asht) and Ger. ist

10. Anger(v)= c.1200, "to irritate, annoy, provoke," from O.N. angra "to grieve, vex, distress; to be vexed at, take offense with," from P.Gmc. *angus (gusht-ngusht) (cf. O.E. enge (ngusht) "narrow, painful," M.Du. enghe, Goth. aggwus (gusht-ngusht)"narrow"), from PIE base *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful" (ngusht-ankth-ankon-angazhoj) (cf. Skt. amhu- "narrow," amhah "anguish;" Armenian anjuk "narrow;" Lith. ankstas "narrow;" Gk. ankhein (ankth-ankohen-ankes) "to squeeze," ankhone (ankohen-ankth)"a strangling;" L. angere "to throttle, torment;" O.Ir. cum-ang "straitness, want"). In M.E., also of physical pain. Meaning "excite to wrath, make angry" is from late 14c. Related: Angered; angering.

11. Ante=1838 (n.), 1846 (v.), Amer.Eng. poker slang, apparently from L. ante "before," from PIE *anti "facing opposite, near, in front of, before" ( ne ane te-andej-anti-matan) (cf. Skt. antah "end, border, boundary," Hittite hanti "opposite," Gk. anta, anten "opposite," anti "over against, opposite, before;" O.Lith. anta "on to;" Goth. anda "along;" O.E. and- "against;" Ger. ent- "along, against"), from base *ant- "front, forehead

12. Apollo=Olympian deity, god of music, poetry, medicine, etc., later identified with Helios, the sun god; the name is a Latin form of Gk. Apollon, said to be perhaps related to an obsolete Greek verb meaning "to drive away" (Fjala Apole dikur ne shqipe eshte perdorur per te shprehur fjalen “Lindje-Orinet”-ku lind djelli” sinonim I fjales Pjell-Polli, dhe kjo I jep shume mundesi qe fjala Apollo, lidhur drejt per drejt me diellin, te jete (Pjellja (lindja) e djellit, sic edhe e perdorim ne sot Lindje-qe nen kupton lindjen e diellit-) (evil, etc.) [Klein, citing Usener.

13. Approve=c.1300, "to demonstrate, prove;" mid-14c., "to attest (something) with authority," from O.Fr. aprover (Mod.Fr. approuver) "approve, agree to," from L. approbare "to assent to as good, regard as good," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + probare ( aprovo-prova) "to try, test something (to find if it is good)," from probus "honest, genuine" (see prove). The meaning extended late 14c. to "to sanction, endorse, confirm formally" then to "assent to (something) as good" (early 15c.), especially in reference to the actions of authorities, parliaments, etc. Related: Approved; approving.

14. Aqua= comb. element or prefix meaning "water," from L. aqua "water; the sea; rain," cognate with P.Gmc. *akhwo, source of O.E. ea "river," Goth. ahua "river, waters," O.N. Ęgir, name of the sea-god, O.E. ieg "island;" all from PIE *akwa- "water" (Uji-ujra: Akwa=Qull, K eshte shnderruar ne Q. p.sh quiet=qet, okeanos=oqean.) (cf. Skt. ap "water," Hitt. akwanzi "they drink," Lith. uppe "a river.

15. Arable=early 15c., "suitable for plowing" (as opposed to pasture- or wood-land), from O.Fr. arable (12c.), from L. arabilis, from arare "to plow," from PIE *are- "to plow" (Are-Aregat: eshte ai qe punon aren-ne shqipe “are” jane vetem fushat qe punohen)(cf. Gk. aroun, O.C.S. orja, Lith. ariu "to plow;" Goth. arjan, O.E. erian, M.Ir. airim, Welsh arddu "to plow;" O.N. aržr "a plow"). Replaced by late 18c. native erable, from O.E. erian "to plow," from the same PIE source

16. Arc= late 14c., originally in reference to the sun's apparent motion in the sky, from O.Fr. arc "bow, arch, vault" (12c.), from L. arcus "a bow, arch," from PIE base *arku- "bowed, curved" (hark-laku-lak) (cf. Goth. arhvazna "arrow," O.E. earh, O.N. ör). Electrical sense is from 1821

17. Archon= one of the nine chief magistrates of ancient Athens, 1650s, from Gk. arkhon "ruler," noun use of prp. of arkhein "to rule," from PIE *arkhein- "(to begin, rule, command, (mund te kete dicka me fjalen Harkon-me kuptimin figurative I plotefuqishem qe ka future gjithcka nen “harkun” -) " a "Gk. verb of unknown origin, but showing archaic Indo-European features ... with derivatives arkhe, 'rule, beginning,' and arkhos, 'ruler' " [Watkins)

18. Arena= 1620s, "place of combat," from L. harena "place of combat," originally "sand, sandy place," (Renia-Rania ose Rana-Rera) perhaps from Etruscan. The central stages of Roman amphitheaters were strewn with sand to soak up the blood

19. Ark=O.E. earc, mainly meaning Noah's but also the Ark of the Covenant, (Arka-barka-varka -Arka e kursimit: perfundimisht dicka qe mbart) from L. arca "large box, chest" (see arcane). Also borrowed in O.H.G. (arahha, Mod.Ger. Arche). From the Noachian sense comes extended meaning "place of refuge" (17c.). As the name of a type of ship or boat, from late 15c. In 19c. U.S., especially a large, flat-bottomed river boat to move produce, livestock, etc. to market

20. Aroma=early 13c., "fragrant substance," from L. aroma "sweet odor," from Gk. aroma "seasoning, any spice or sweet herb," of unknown origin. (Ere e mire=aroma) Meaning "fragrance" is from 1814. A hypercorrect plural is aromata

21. Arrive= c.1200, "reach land, reach the end of a journey by sea," from Anglo-Fr. ariver, O.Fr. ariver (11c.) "to come to land," from V.L. *arripare "to touch the shore," from L. ad ripam "to the shore," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ripa "shore" (Arrije: mendoj se Arrita I pershtatet me shume-me kuptimin figurative te e fjales u rrita me ia dal qellimit) (see riparian). The original notion is of coming ashore after a long voyage. Of journeys other than by sea, from late 14c. Sense of "to come to a position or state of mind" is from late 14c. Related: Arrived; arriving.

22. Autocrat= 1803, from Fr. autocrate, from Gk. autokrates "ruling by oneself," from autos- (Vet) "self" (comb. form) + kratia (Kreret-kret-Kryeci)"rule," from kratos "strength, power" (see -cracy). First used by Robert Southey, with reference to Napoleon. An earlier form was autocrator (1789), used in reference to the Russian Czars. Earliest form in English is the fem. autocratress (1762)

23. Bake=O.E. bacan "to bake," from P.Gmc. *bakanan (cf. O.N. baka, M.Du. backen, O.H.G. bahhan, Ger. backen), from P.Gmc. *bakan "to bake," from PIE *bheg- "to warm, roast, bake" (Pjek-djeg) (cf. Gk. phogein "to roast"), from base *bhe- "to warm”

24. Barber=early 14c., from Anglo-Fr. barbour (attested as a surname from early 13c.), from O.Fr. barbeor, barbieor (Mod.Fr. barbier, which has a more restricted sense than the English word), from V.L. *barbatorem) (me VL “vulgar latin” nenkuptohet gjuha e popullit) from L. barba (Bar: kjo mund te vije nga fjala Bar, “bari/qimet e mjekres” nuk ka ruajtur kete kuptim ne shqipen por I pershtatet shume mire) "beard." Originally also regular practitioners of surgery and dentistry, they were restricted to haircutting and dentistry under Henry VIII. Barber-shop is from 1570s; in reference to close harmony male vocal quartets, it is attested from 1910 (bar-pre)

25. Bark(2)= "any small ship," early 15c., from M.Fr. barque, from L.L. barca (c.400 C.E.), probably cognate with V.L. *barica ( Barka-Varka-Barku= te gjitha kan karakteristikat e dickaje qe mban)(see barge). More precise sense of "three-masted ship" (17c.) often is spelled barque to distinguish it

26. Baron=.1200, from O.Fr. baron (nom. Ber (Burr)) "baron, nobleman, military leader, warrior, virtuous man, lord, husband," perhaps from Frankish baro (Burr) "freeman, man;" merged with cognate O.E. beorn "nobleman." Related: Baronial (1767)

27. Bead= late 14c., bede "prayer bead," from O.E. gebed "prayer," from P.Gmc. *bešan (cf. M.Du. bede, O.H.G. beta, Ger. bitte, Goth. bida "prayer, request"), from PIE *gwhedh- "to ask, pray." (hedh (gurin): perdorimi i tespive, karakteristika e te cilave eshe pikerisht ajo qe pershkruhet ne vijim me shkronjat e zeza) Shift in meaning came via beads threaded on a string to count prayers, and in phrases like to bid one's beads, to count one's beads. German cognate Bitte is the usual word for conversational request "please." Also related to bid (O.E. biddan) and Goth. bidjan "to ask, pray." Sense transferred to "drop of liquid" 1590s; to "small knob forming front sight of a gun" 1831 (Kentucky slang); hence draw a bead on "take aim at," 1841, U.S. colloquial

28. Bean=O.E. bean "bean, pea, legume," from P.Gmc. *bauno (cf. O.N. baun, Ger. bohne), perhaps from a PIE reduplicated base *bha-bha- (bath) and related to L. faba "bean." As a metaphor for "something of small value" it is attested from c.1300. Meaning "head" is U.S. baseball slang c.1905 (in bean-ball "a pitch thrown at the head"); thus slang verb bean meaning "to hit on the head," attested from 1910.

29. Bear(v)= O.E. beran "to bear, bring; bring forth, produce; to endure, sustain; to wear" (class IV strong verb; past tense bęr, pp. boren), from P.Gmc. *beranan (cf. O.H.G. beran, Ger. gebären, O.N. bera, Goth. bairan "to carry, bear, give birth to"), from PIE root *bher- (1) meaning both "give birth" (Bej-Barr-mbart-Bier)(though only English and German??? strongly retain this sense,??? and Russian has beremennaya "pregnant") and "carry a burden, bring" (see infer). Ball bearings "bear" the friction. Many senses are from notion of "move onward by pressure." O.E. past tense bęr became M.E. bare; alternative bore began to appear c.1400, but bare remained the literary form till after 1600. Past participle distinction of borne for "carried" and born for "given birth" is 1775. To bear (something) in mind is from 1530s.

30. Beast=early 13c., from O.Fr. beste (11c., Mod.Fr. bźte) "animal, wild beast," figuratively "fool, idiot;" from L. bestia "beast, wild animal," of unknown origin. (Bish-Bisht-ndoshta kjo eshte pershtatja me e mire, me kuptimin kafsh te egra, ne krahasim me njeriun, pra ato qe kane bisht) replacing O.E. deor (see deer) as the generic word for "wild creature," only to be ousted 16c. by animal

31. Bend=O.E. bendan "to confine with a string," causative of bindan "to bind," from P.Gmc. base *band- "string, band" (cf. O.N. benda "to join, strain, strive, bend"), from PIE base *bhendh- (Bind, me kuptimin qe ta “perkulesh” “harkosh”, te mbushesh mendjen, pra ta bindesh: ne shqipe ky koncept eshte vetem figurative.) (cf. Goth. bindan, O.H.G. bintan, Skt. badhnati "binds," Lith. bendras "partner;" O.Pers. bandaka- "subject"). Modern sense (early 14c.) is via notion of bending a bow to string it. Cognate with band, bind, and bond. The noun meaning "thing of bent shape" is from c.1600. The bends "decompression pain" first attested 1894

32. Bet=1590s, in the argot of petty criminals; probably??? aphetic of abet, or from obsolete beet (bast; nga fjala “bes”: ne fund te fundit kur njeriu ven bast, ai beson.)) "to make good," from O.E. bętan "make better, arouse, stimulate," from P.Gmc. *baitjanan. The original notion is perhaps "to improve" a contest by wagering on it, or it is from the "bait" sense in abet. Used since 1852 in various Amer.Eng. slang assertions (cf. you bet "be assured," 1857). Related: Betting

33. Bezaor=late 15c., ultimately from Arabic bazahr, from Pers. pad-zahr "counter-poison," from pad "protecting, guardian, master" (from Iranian *patar-, cf. Avestan patar-, from PIE *pa-tor-, from base *pa- "to protect, feed") + zahr (Zeher) "poison" (from O.Ir. *jathra, from PIE *gwhn-tro-, from base *gwhen- "to strike, kill;" (gjun-gjujt[qellon]) see bane). Originally "antidote," later specifically in reference to a concoction from solid matter found in the stomachs and intestines of ruminants, which was held to have antidotal qualities (1570s).

34. Bibe (imbibe)= late 14c., from O.Fr. embiber "to soak into," from L. imbibere "absorb, drink in, inhale," from in- "in" + bibere (Biberon)"to drink," related to potare "to drink," from PIE *pi-/*po(i)- "to drink ( me Pi-Pin) (cf. Skt. pati "drinks," panam "beverage;" Gk. pinein (pinini)"to drink," potos "a drinking;" O.C.S. piti "to drink"). Figurative sense of "mentally drink in" (knowledge, ideas, etc.) was the main one in classical L., first attested in English 1550s. Related: Imbibed; imbibing.

35. Bicycle= 1868, coined from bi-( Di-Dy-ne greqishten e vjeter Dy ishte Di)"two" + Gk. Kyklos (KoKel-Koka-Kokra- Cikli) "circle, wheel" (see cycle), on the pattern of tricycle; both the word and the vehicle superseding earlier velocipede. Probably not from French, though often said to be. The assumption apparently is because Pierre Lallement, employee of a French carriage works, improved Macmillan's 1839 pedal velocipede in 1865 and took the invention to America. See also

36. Bid=The modern verb is a merger of two old words. The sense in bid farewell is from O.E. biddan "to ask, entreat, pray, beseech; order; beg" (class V strong verb, past tense będ, past participle beden), from P.Gmc. *bidjan "to pray, entreat" (cf. Ger. bitten (Piten/pyeten)"to ask," O.H.G., 8c.), which, according to Kluge and Watkins is from a PIE base *gwhedh- "to ask, pray" (shikoni fjalen Bead) (see bead). A bid at an auction, meanwhile, is from O.E. beodan "offer, proclaim" (class II strong verb; p.t. bead, p.p. boden), from P.Gmc. *biudanan "to stretch out, reach out, offer, present," (cf. Ger. bieten "to offer"), from PIE base *bh(e)udh- "to be aware, make aware" (cf. Skt. bodhati "is awake, is watchful, observes," buddhah "awakened, enlightened;" O.C.S. bljudo "to observe;" Lith. budeti "to be awake;" O.Ir. buide "contentment, thanks.

37. Bier= O.E. bęr (W.Saxon), ber (Anglian) "handbarrow, litter, bed," from W.Gmc. *bero (O.H.G. bara, O.Fris. bere, M.Du. bare), from base *ber- and thus related to the O.E. verb beran "to bear" (bier-mbart) (see bear (v.)), making a bier anything used for carrying, (Bier: P.sh “bjere ketu”) only later limited to funerary sense. Since c.1600, spelling influenced by Fr. bičre, from O.Fr. biere, from Frankish *bera, from the same Germanic root.

38. Birth= early 13c., from O.N. *byršr (replacing cognate O.E. gebyrd "birth, descent, race; offspring; nature; fate"), from P.Gmc. *gaburthis (cf. O.Fris. berd, O.S. giburd, Du. geboorte, Ger. geburt, Goth. gabauržs), from PIE *bhrto pp. of base *bher- (1) "to bear" (barr-bej-bier ne jete) (cf. Skt. bhrtih "a bringing, maintenance," L. fors, gen. fortis "chance;" see bear (v.)). Suffix -th is for "process" (as in bath, death). Meaning "parentage, lineage, extraction" (revived from O.E.) is from mid-13c. Birth control is from 1914; birth rate from 1859.

39. Bitch=O.E. bicce, probably from O.N. bikkjuna (Buqe-buce. Kjo e fundit eshte dialektale dhe bie me ne perputhje me shqiptimin e “tch” )"female of the dog" (also fox, wolf, and occasionally other beasts), of unknown origin. Grimm derives the O.N. word from Lapp pittja, but OED notes that "the converse is equally possible." As a term of contempt applied to women, it dates from c.1400; of a man, c.1500, playfully, in the sense of "dog." In modern (1990s, originally black English) slang, its use with reference to a man is sexually contemptuous, from the "woman" insult.

40. Boor=13c., from O.Fr. bovier "herdsman," from L. bovis, gen. of bos "cow, ox." Re-introduced 16c. from Du. boer, from M.Du. gheboer "fellow dweller," from P.Gmc. *buram (Burra)"dweller," especially "farmer," from PIE *bhu-, from base *bheue- (behu) (see be). Original meaning was "peasant farmer" (cf. Ger. Bauer, Du. boer, Dan. bonde), and in English it was at first applied to agricultural laborers in or from other lands, as

41. Bore=O.E. borian "to bore through, perforate," from bor "auger," from P.Gmc. *buron (cf. O.N. bora, Swed. borra, O.H.G. boron, M.Du. boren, Ger. bohren), from PIE base *bher- (2) "to cut with a sharp point" (cf. Gk. pharao "I plow," L. forare "to bore, pierce," O.C.S. barjo "to strike, fight," Albanian brime "hole"). The meaning "diameter of a tube" is first recorded 1570s; hence figurative slang full bore (1936) "at maximum speed," from notion of unchoked carburetor on an engine. Sense of "be tiresome or dull" first attested 1768, a vogue word c.1780-81 according to Grose; possibly a figurative extension of "to move forward slowly and persistently," as a boring tool does.

42. Borrow(1)= vehicle for carrying a load," c.1300, barewe, probably from an unrecorded O.E. *bearwe "basket, barrow," from beran (bier-bien-Barr)"to bear, to carry" (see bear (v)).

43. Borrow(2)= mound," O.E. beorg (W.Saxon), berg (Anglian) "barrow, mountain, hill, mound," from P.Gmc. *bergaz (breg)(cf. O.S., O.Fris., O.H.G. berg "mountain," O.N. bjarg "rock"), from PIE base *bheregh- "high, elevated" (breg-brigje(cf. O.C.S. bregu "mountain, height," O.Ir. brigh "mountain," Skt. b'rhant "high," O.Pers. bard- "be high"). Obsolete except in place-names and southwest England dialect by 1400; revived by archaeology

44. Brim=c.1200, brymme "edge of the sea," of obscure origin, (breg-ne prag te) perhaps akin to O.N. barmr "rim, brim," probably related to Ger. bräme "margin, border, fringe," from PIE *bhrem- "point, spike, edge." (Brim-vrim) (O.E. brim meant "sea, surf," and probably was from the Gmc. stem brem- "to roar, rage.") Extended by 1520s to cups, basins, hats.

Brindisiou/Brindisi= shifni si shpjegohet prejardhja e qytetit Brindisi ne Wikipedia (Brindisi was an Ancient Greek settlement predating the Roman expansion. The Latin name Brundisium comes from the Greek Brentesion (Βρεντήσιον) meaning "deer's head", which refers to the shape of the natural harbo) E verteta eshte qe Brindizi ka qene qytet Ilir, kjo gje eshte vertetuar se edhe emerin e ka nga ilirishtja qe do te thote Brir,Brin Brinj te drerit sepse forma e tij eshte tipike e kokes se drerit, shikoni harten me posht.( Etymology: The name comes through the Latin Brundisium through the Greek Brentesion??? and Messapi Brention meaning “head of deer”.[7] The city's name appears, therefore, refer to the shape of the port which recalls the shape of the head of the animal. (Sipas Eqrem Cabejt dhe dietareve te ndryshem emeri Brindisi sic permenda me par perkthehet nga ilirishtja, fjale qe ka ngelur ne shqipe, Brir, Brin. I njejti burim thote se Messapi ka qene fis ilir, iliret ka dominuar ne juge te ilatise dhe sidomos ne Sicili)

45. Call=O.E. ceallian "to call, shout," less common than clipian; replaced by related O.N. kalla "to cry loudly," from P.Gmc. *kallojanan (cf. Du. kallen (Kallezon) "to talk," O.H.G. kallon "to call"), from PIE base *gal- "to call, scream, shriek, shout" (Gjel-Gjinkall) (cf. Skt. garhati "bewail, criticize;" L. gallus "cock;" O.H.G. klaga, Ger. Klage "complaint, grievance, lament, accusation;" O.E. clacu "affront;" O.C.S. glasu "voice," glagolu "word;" Welsh galw "call"). As a noun, from early 14c. Meaning "to give a name to" is mid-13c. Coin-toss sense is from 1801. Meaning "to visit" (M.E.) was literally "to stand at the door and call;" noun sense of "a short formal visit" is from 1862. Telephone/telegraph sense is from 1889. To call out someone to fight (1823) corresponds to Fr. provoqueur. To call it a day is from 1834

46. Campus="college grounds," 1774, from L. campus "a field," probably properly "an expanse surrounded" (by woods, higher ground, etc.), from PIE *kampos "a corner, cove," from base *kamp- "to bend" (kama/kemba, shikoni fjalen Scamper) (cf. Lith. kampus "corner," Pol. kepa "island in a river"). First used in college sense at Princeton.

47. Can(n)= O.E. canne "a cup, container," from P.Gmc. *kanna (kanace)(cf. O.S., O.N., Swed. kanna, M.Du. kanne, Du. kan, O.H.G. channa, Ger. Kanne), probably an early borrowing from L.L. canna "container, vessel," from L. canna "reed," also "reed pipe, small boat;" but the sense evolution is difficult. Modern "air-tight vessel of tinned iron" is from 1867 (can-opener is from 1877). Slang meaning "toilet" is c.1900, said to be a shortening of piss-can. Meaning "buttocks" is from c.1910. The verb meaning "to put up in cans" is attested from 1871; that of "to fire an employee" is from 1905. Related: Canning. Canned "pre-recorded" first attested 1904

48. Candel=O.E. candel "lamp, lantern, candle," an early ecclesiastical borrowing from L. candela "a light, torch, candle made of tallow or wax," from candere "to shine," from PIE base *kand- "to glow, to shine, to shoot out light" (Kandili-Shkendi) (cf. Skt. cand- "to give light, shine," candra- "shining, glowing, moon;" Gk. kandaros "coal;" Welsh cann "white;" M.Ir. condud "fuel"). Candles were unknown in ancient Greece (where oil lamps sufficed), but common from early times among Romans and Etruscans. Candles on birthday cakes seems to have been originally a German custom. To hold a candle to originally meant "to help in a subordinate capacity." To burn the candle at both ends is recorded from 1730.

49. Canine(n)= "pointed tooth," late 14c., from L. caninus (ken/qen, mendoj se vjen nga fjala “Qan” astu si vjen fjala ulk nga ulerima e tij e vecant)"of the dog," gen. of canis "dog," from PIE base *kwon- "dog" (Ken-qen-kone) (cf. Gk. Kyon(qen), O.E. hund, (hunda: nuhatja qe eshte karakteristik e qenit) O.H.G. hunt, O.Ir. cu, Welsh ci, Skt. svan-, Avestan spa, Rus. sobaka (apparently from an Iranian source), Armenian shun, Lith. suo). The adjective is attested from c.1600. The noun meaning "dog" is first recorded 1869.


P.S. Kaq per sote. Neser do te bie 50 tjera...
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50. Cant(1)= "insincere talk," 1709, earlier it was slang for "whining of beggars" (Kian-Qan-Qaraman) (1640s), from a verb in this sense (1560s), from O.N.Fr. canter (O.Fr. chanter) "to sing, chant," from L. cantare(kian-qan-kanon/kendon) , frequentative of canere "to sing" (see chant). Sense in English developed after 1680 to mean the jargon of criminals and vagabonds, thence applied contemptuously by any sect or school to the phraseology of its rival.

51. Cant(2)= "slant," late 14c., Scottish, "edge, brink," from O.N.Fr. cant "corner" (perhaps via M.L.G. kante or M.Du. kant), from V.L. *canthus, from L. cantus "iron tire of a wheel," possibly from a Celtic word meaning "rim of wheel, edge" (cf. Welsh cant "bordering of a circle, tire, edge," (kand-kam/kemb) Breton cant "circle"), from PIE *kam-bo- "corner, bend," from base *kemb- " () to bend, turn, change" (kemb/kama/kand: besoj se mund te lidhim kety edhe Kam/kemb) (cf. Gk. Kanthos (kand/kend) "corner of the eye," Rus. kutu "corner”.

52. Cap=O.E. cęppe "hood, head-covering, cape," from L.L. cappa (Kapuc-Kapot) "a cape, hooded cloak," possibly a shortened from capitulare "headdress," from L. caput (Kaptine-Kapuc)"head" (see head). Meaning "women's head covering" (kapele- me kap floket) is early 13c. in English; extended to men late 14c. Of cap-like coverings on the ends of anything (e.g. hub-cap) from mid-15c. Meaning "contraceptive device" is first recorded 1916. "Cap-shaped piece of copper lined with gunpowder and used to ignite a gun" is c.1826; extended to paper version used in toy pistols, 1872. The L.L. word apparently originally meant "a woman's head-covering," but the sense was transferred to "hood of a cloak," then to "cloak" itself, though the various senses co-existed. O.E. took in two forms of the L.L. word, one meaning "head-covering," the other "ecclesiastical dress" (see cape (1)). In most Romance languages, a dim. of L.L. cappa has become the usual word for "head-covering" (cf. Fr. chapeau). As a verb, from c.1400; meaning "to excell" is from 1821, originally dialectal. Related: Capped; capping.

53. Capable= 1560s, from L.L. capabilis "receptive," used by theologians, from L. capax "able to hold much, broad, wide, roomy;" also "receptive, fit for;" adj. form of capere "to take, grasp, lay hold, catch, undertake, be large enough for, comprehend," from PIE *kap- "to grasp" (Kap) (cf. Skt. kapati "two handfuls;" Gk. kaptein (kapercen)"to swallow, gulp (gelltit) down;" Lett. kampiu "seize;" O.Ir. cacht "servant-girl," lit. "captive;" Welsh caeth "captive, slave;" Goth. haban "have, hold;" O.E. hęft "handle," habban "to have, hold;" see have). Related: Capably

54. Capacity=early 15c., from M.Fr. capacité (15c.), from L. capacitatem (nom. capacitas) "breadth, capacity," from capax (gen. capacis) "able to hold much," from capere "to take" (Kup-aq sa mund te mbaj Kupa, smban me kupa. Fjala Kup perdoret ne disa gjuhe por mendoj sepse eshte fjale shqipe, sepse Kupa ka nje form karakteristike e ngrackave(gropat) te hershme qe perdoreshin per te kapur kafsh te medhenj. Mendoj se edhe fjala Kap e ka prejardhjen nga kjo fjal. Bejme Kupen(gropen) qe te Kapim, kety nxjerim edhe fjalen Kapak, qe mbyll kupen, dhe kap ose mban ate qe eshte brenda) (see capable). Meaning "largest audience a place can hold" is 1908. Verb capacitate is recorded from 1650s.

55. Captive=late 14c., from L. captivus "caught, taken prisoner," from captus, pp. of capere (I kapur-kap) "to take, hold, seize" (see capable). Replaced O.E. hęftling, from hęft "taken, seized." As an adj., from early 15c.

56. Car=c.1300, "wheeled vehicle," from O.N.Fr. carre, from L. carrum, carrus (pl. carra), originally "two-wheeled Celtic war chariot," from Gaulish karros (cf. Welsh carr "cart, wagon," Breton karr "chariot"), from PIE *krsos, ( Karro-Kerr-Karroc-Qerre)from base *kers- "to run." (garend) Extension to "automobile" is 1896. Car bomb first 1972, in reference to Northern Ireland.

57. Carpathian=mountain range of Eastern Europe, from Thracian Gk. Karpates oros, lit. "Rocky Mountain related to Albanian karpe "rock."(Karpe=shkrepa, kjo mendohet se eshte fjale e marrur nga iliret dhe qe do te thonte Gur, shkemb, pra dhe fjala Shrepa=shkemb)

58. Carpe-Diem=1817, from L., "enjoy the day," lit. "pluck the day (while it is ripe)," (kjo shprehje dod te thote te shijosh diten sa te jet aty, do methen Carpe(Kape-Kepute)-Diem(Diten)-para se te mbaroj- qe ne thelb do te thote jeto per castin-shijo jeten lirisht) aphorism from Horace ("Odes" I.xi), from PIE *kerp- "to gather, pluck, harvest (Kape-Keput-Korr)

59. Carrot=1530s, from M.Fr. carrotte, from L. carota, from Gk. karoton "carrot," from PIE *kre-, ," (kre-kryt-kreret-kryesi) from base *ker- "horn, head so called for its horn-like shape. Originally white-rooted and a medicinal plant to the ancients, who used it as an aphrodisiac and to prevent poisoning. Not entirely distinguished from parsnips in ancient times. Reintroduced in Europe by Arabs c.1100. The orange carrot, perhaps as early as 6c., probably began as a mutation of the Asian purple carrot and was cultivated into the modern edible plant 16c.-17c. in the Netherlands. Planted as a garden vegetable by 1609 by Jamestown colonists

60. Carve=O.E. ceorfan (class III strong verb; past tense cearf, pp. corfen) "to cut, cut down, slay; to carve, cut out, engrave," from W.Gmc. *kerfan (cf. O.Fris. kerva, Du. kerven, Ger. kerben "to cut, notch"), from PIE base *gerbh- "to scratch," (gervisht-germo-kruaj) making carve the English cognate of Gk. graphein "to write," originally "to scratch" on clay tablets with a stylus. Once extensively used, most senses now usurped by cut. Meaning specialized to sculpture, meat, etc., by 16c. Strong conjugation became weak, but archaic carven is still encountered.

61. Category=1580s, from M.Fr. catégorie, from L.L. categoria, from Gk. kategoria, from kategorein "to speak against; to accuse, assert, predicate," from kata (Kati-Kate, kategoria eshte dicka qe ndahet ne “kategori” te ndryshme, nenkupton shkaller prandaj edhe fjala Kat-shkall, kategoria e pare , e dyte, e tret, etj…)"down to" (or perhaps "against")??? + agoreuein "to declaim (in the assembly)," from agora "public assembly," from PIE base *ger- "to gather" (grumbullo) (see gregarious). Original sense of "accuse" weakened to "assert, name" by the time Aristotle applied kategoria to his 10 classes of things that can be nam.

62. Cede=1630s, from L. cedere "to yield; to give up some right or property," originally "to go, proceed, leave," from PIE base *ked- "to go, yield" (kujdes-ndjes)(cf. Skt. a-sad- "to go, approach;" Avestan apa-had- "turn aside, step aside;" Gk. hodos "way," (fillimisht kjo fjale ka qe ne “od” “udh/e”me vone shtuar “H” perpara dhe “os” sic dihet prapashtese karakteristike e greqishtes, gje qe ndodh edhe ne shqipen per shembull: djalosh, lemosh, ka edhe shume fjale te tjera qe duke I shtuar “osh” emeri kthehet ne folje: kendosh, degjosh, lexosh, notosh etj. Etj) hodites (udhetar-I udhes) "wanderer, wayfarer;" O.C.S. chodu "a walking, going," choditi "to go"). Related: Ceded; ceding. The sense evolution in Latin is via the notion of "to go away, withdraw, give ground.

63. Ceiling=mid-14c., celynge, "paneling, any interior surface of a building," noun formed (with -ing) from M.E. borrowing of M.Fr. verb celer (qeli) "to conceal, cover with paneling" (12c.), from L. celare (see cell); probably influenced by L. cęlum "heaven, sky" (ceill/qiell/[diell])(see celestial). The meaning "top surface of a room" is attested by 1530s. Colloquial phrase hit the ceiling "lose one's temper" is 1914

64. Celestial= late 14c., from O.Fr. celestial "celestial, heavenly, sky-blue," from L. caelestis "heavenly, pertaining to the sky," from caelum "heaven, sky; abode of the gods; climate," of uncertain origin; perhaps from PIE *kaid-slo-, from a root meaning "bright. ??? “ The Latin word is the source of the usual word for "sky" in most of the Romance languages, e.g. French ciel, Sp. cielo, It. Cielo (Qiell-me kuptimin e fjales I paster-I tejdukshem se Qelq- in sinqert-e qart)

65. Certain= c.1300, "determined, fixed," from O.Fr. certain "reliable, sure, assured" (12c.), from V.L. *certanus, from L. certus "sure, fixed, settled, determined,"( I qart-te qartesosh) originally a variant pp. of cernere "to distinguish, decide," lit. "to sift, separate"(see crisis). Certainer, certainest were common to c.1750, but have fallen from proper use for some reason

66. Chasuble= c.1300, cheisible, from O.Fr. chesible (12c., Mod.Fr. chasuble), from M.L. casubla, from L.L. *casubula, unexplained alteration of L. casula (kasolle-{ndoshta vjen nga Kashta, bar I that}"a little hut," dim. of casa (kasolle-Kesule)"cottage, house" (see casino), used by c.400 in transferred sense of "outer garment." From the notion that hooded garments resembled or suggested little houses.

67. Cheer= early 13c., from Anglo-Norm. chere "the face," from O.Fr. chiere "face, countenance, look, expression," from L.L. cara "face" (cf. Sp. cara), possibly from Gk. kara (kre/kreja) "head," from PIE base *ker- "head." (kryt-kre) Already by late 14c. the meaning had extended metaphorically to "mood, demeanor, mental condition" as reflected in the face. This could be in a good or bad sense ("The feend ... beguiled her with treacherye, and brought her into a dreerye cheere," "Merline," c.1500), but a positive sense has predominated since c.1400. Meaning "shout of encouragement" first recorded 1720, perhaps nautical slang (earlier "to encourage by words or deeds," early 15c.). The verb is attested from late 14c. Related: Cheered; cheering. Cheer up (intrans.) first attested 1670s.

68. Chop(1)= "to cut," ( me Ca-Copetu-Sopat, me be cope-cope) mid-14c., perhaps from O.Fr. (Picard) choper (O.Fr. coper (copto)"to cut, cut off," 12c., Mod.Fr. couper), from V.L. *cuppare "to behead," from a root meaning "head," but influenced in O.Fr. by couper "to strike." Related: Chopped; chopping. Meaning "slice of meat" is mid-17c.; hence, chop-house (1680s) "a mean house of entertainment, where provision ready dressed is sold" [Johnson].

69. Chord (2)= "structure in animals resembling a string," 1540s, alteration of cord, by influence of Gk. khorde "gut-string, string of a lyre, tripe," from PIE *ghere- "gut, entrail" (Zorret-)(see yarn). The geometry sense is from 1550s; meaning "feeling, emotion" first attested 1784

70. Comb=O.E. camb "comb, crest, honeycomb" (later Anglian comb), from W.Gmc. *kambaz (cf. O.S., O.H.G. camb, Ger. Kamm, M.Du. cam, Du. kam, O.N. kambr), lit. "toothed object," from PIE *gombhos, from base *gembh- "to bite, tooth" (themb)(cf. Gk. gomphos (dham: dialekt geg)"a molar tooth," Skt. gambha-s (dhamb) "tooth"). As a verb, late 14c. (implied in pp. kombid); replacing O.E. cemban, which survives in unkempt. Related: Combed; combing.

71. Cook= O.E. coc, from V.L. cocus "cook," from L. coquus, from coquere "to cook, prepare food, ripen, digest, turn over in the mind" from PIE base *pekw- "to cook"(pjek) (cf. Oscan popina "kitchen," Skt. pakvah "cooked," Gk. peptein, Lith. kepti "to bake, roast," O.C.S. pecenu "roasted," Welsh poeth "cooked, baked, hot"). Germanic languages had no one native term for all types of cooking, and borrowed the Latin word (cf. O.S. kok, O.H.G. choh, Ger. Koch, Swed. kock). The verb is first attested late 14c.; the figurative sense of "to manipulate, falsify, doctor" is from 1630s. Related: Cooked, cooking. To cook with gas is 1930s jive talk.

72. Cord= c.1300, from O.Fr. corde "rope, string, twist, cord," from L. chorda "string of a musical instrument, cat-gut," from Gk. khorde (Korda)"string, catgut, chord, cord," from PIE base *ghere- "intestine" (Zorr- i/e gjere-ngatroj-ngerc)) (see yarn). As a measure of wood (eight feet long, four feet high and wide) first recorded 1610s, so called because it was measured with a cord of rope.

73. Cracy= comb. element forming nouns meaning "rule or government by," from Fr. -cratie or M.L. -cratia, from Gk. -kratia (kryecia) "power, might; rule, sway; power over; a power, authority," from kratos (krat ose krahet, qe jane gjithmone simbol I forces) "strength," from PIE *kratus "power, strength" (Ndoshta edhe Krahet-me kuptimin e forces fizike- dhe ajo e krereve te bashkuar qe nenkupton fuqi) (see hard). The connective -o- has come to be viewed as part of it. Productive in English from c.1800

74. Cracy= comb. element forming nouns meaning "rule or government by," from Fr. -cratie or M.L. -cratia, from Gk. -kratia (kryecia) "power, might; rule, sway; power over; a power, authority," from kratos (Kreret) "strength," from PIE *kratus "power, strength" (see hard). The connective -o- has come to be viewed as part of it. Productive in English from c.1800

75. Crate="large box," 1680s, earlier "hurdle, grillwork" (late 14c.), from L. cratis "wickerwork, lattice, kitchen-rack," or from Du. krat "basket;" both perhaps from a common PIE root *kert- "to turn, entwine" (Kurdis-Kerthize-Kurth-Kord-Kater)(see hurdle).

76. Crimson=early 15c., "deep red color," from O.Sp. cremesin "of or belonging to the kermes" (the shield-louse insects from which a deep red dye was obtained), from M.L. cremesinus, from Arabic qirmiz "kermes," from Skt. krmi-ja a compound meaning "(red dye) produced by a worm," from krmih "worm" (Kermi-kerminj-krim) (cognate with Lith. kirmis, O.Ir. cruim, Alb. krimp "worm") + -ja- "produced" (from PIE *gene-). For sense evolution, see cochineal. Cf. O.C.S. čruminu, Rus. čermnyj "red," from the same source. Cf. also vermilion. The insects (Kermes vermilio) were gathered commercially in Mediterranean countries and sold throughout Europe. Kermes dyes have been found in burial wrappings in Anglo-Scandinavian York. It fell out of use with the introduction of cochineal: The dyes were comparable in quality and color intensity, but ten to twelve times as much kermes was needed to produce the same effect as cochineal. As a verb, from c.1600.

77. Cronus=from Gk. Kronos, (Kruan: me kuptimin qe ha, kruan/ha vitet, moshimi I njeriut kruan/gryerja e viteve. Nga kjo fjal del edhe Kronologji) e youngest of the first generation of Titans, and their leader; of uncertain origin, but probably not related to Chronos, personification of time.

78. Crumb=O.E. cruma "crumb, fragment," from a W.Gmc. root of obscure origin (cf. M.Du. crume, Du. kruim, Ger. krume (shkrumbe-qe vjen nga mbeturinat kur kruan apo gryen dicka. Therrimet qe vjen nga thika-ther,)). The -b- appeared mid-15c., in part by analogy with words like dumb, in part from crumble. Slang meaning "lousy person" is 1918, from crumb, U.S. slang for "body-louse" (1863), so called from resemblance.

79. Cup= O.E. cuppe, from L.L. cuppa "cup" (cf. It. coppa, Sp. copa, O.Fr. coupe "cup"), from L. cupa "tub, cask, tun, barrel," from PIE *keup- "a hollow" (Kup-Kupa-Hapesir)(cf. Skt. kupah "hollow, pit, cave," Gk. kype "a kind of ship," O.C.S. kupu, Lith. kaupas). The Late Latin word was borrowed throughout Germanic; cf. O.Fris. kopp "cup, head," M.L.G. kopp "cup," M.Du. coppe, Du. kopje "cup, head." German cognate Kopf now means exclusively "head" (cf. Fr. tźte, from L. testa "potsherd"). Meaning "part of a bra that holds a breast" is from 1938. As a verb, from late 14c., originally "to draw blood by cupping;" meaning "to form a cup" is from 1830. [One's] cup of tea "what interests one" (1932), earlier used of persons (1908), the sense being "what is invigorating.

80. Curt= mid-14c., from L. curtus "(cut) short, shortened, incomplete," from PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut" (krusur-krasit-shkurt-shkurto) (see short). Sense of "rude" is first recorded 1831. The Latin word was adopted early into most Germanic languages (cf. Icelandic korta, Ger. kurz, etc.) and drove out the native words based on P.Gmc. *skurt-(shkurt, krusur, shif fjalen short), but English retains short.

81. Cynic=mid-16c., in reference to the ancient philosophy, from Gk. kynikos "a follower of Antisthenes (anti-thenes: sarkazem=mesazhi qe paraqitet eshte e kunderta(Anti) e asaj qe thuhet(thenies))," lit. "dog-like," from kyon(kone/qen) (gen. kynos) "dog" (see canine). Supposedly from the sneering sarcasm of the philosophers, but more likely from Kynosarge "Grey Dog," name of the gymnasium outside ancient Athens (for the use of those who were not pure Athenians) where the founder, Antisthenes (a pupil of Socrates), taught. Diogenes was the most famous. Popular association even in ancient times was "dog-like" (Lucian has kyniskos "a little cynic," lit. "puppy" (kone) (Meaning "sneering sarcastic person" is from 1590s.

82. Cynthia= "the Moon," from L. Cynthia dea (hena-hana-hyjnia) "the Cynthian goddess," epithet of Artemis/Diana, said to have been born on Mt. Cynthus on Delos.

83. Cyto=before a vowel, cyt-, Mod.L. comb. form from Gk. kytos (Kuti) "a hollow, receptacle, basket" (from PIE *ku-ti-, (Kuti)from base *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal;" see hide (n.1)); used in modern science since c.1859 for "cell," perhaps especially from the sense (in Aristophanes) of "a cell of a hive of wasps or bees.

84. Dalmatia=region along the eastern Adriatic coast in what is now Croatia; perhaps from a derivative of PIE *dhal- "to bloom," (Dikur ne gjuhen shqipe kan egzistuar fjalet “dhunti, Dhireti” qe do te thonin lule, lulezoj. Mendohes se Delmatia/Dalmatia mund te ket ardhur nga fjala Dele, Delme=Dhent, Kullota)in a sense of "young animal," in ref. to the mountain pastures.

85. Damn=late 13c., "to condemn," from O.Fr. damner "damn, condemn; convict, blame; injure," derivative of L. damnare "to adjudge guilty; ( me demtu-Dem) to doom; to condemn, blame, reject," from noun damnum (Dam-Dem)"damage, hurt, harm; loss, injury; a fine, penalty," possibly from an ancient religious term from PIE *dap- "to apportion in exchange" (Dap-Jap)[see Watkins]. The Latin word evolved a legal meaning of "pronounce judgment upon." Theological sense is first recorded early 14c.; the optative expletive use likely is as old. Damn and its derivatives generally were avoided in print from 18c. to c.1930s (the famous line in the film version of "Gone with the Wind" was a breakthrough and required much effort by the studio). The noun is recorded from 1610s; to be not worth a damn is from 1817. The adjective is 1775, short for damned; Damn Yankee, characteristic Southern U.S. term for "Northerner," is attested from 1812.

86. Dante= masc. proper name, most modern uses outside Italy ultimately are in reference to Dante Alighieri (c.1265–1321), the great poet; the name is a shortening of L. Durante, from durare "harden, endure" ( durim-duru: per mendimin tim mund te ket prejardhjen nga fjala “Dru”) (see endure

87. Deed=O.E. dęd "a doing, act, action, transaction, event," from P.Gmc. *dędis (cf. O.S. dad, O.N. daš, O.Fris. dede, M.Du. daet, Du. daad, O.H.G. tat, Ger. Tat "deed," Goth. gadežs "a putting, placing"), from PIE *dhetis (det-thes-detyre: po ti analizosh fjalet e shqipes det edhe thes vihet re se funksionet e tyre praktike jane te mbartin dicka: Ne anglishte fjala “Debt” do te thote borxh pra nenkupton nje pergjesi, nje pesh. Kjo e fundit mendoj paraqet nje rast klasik kur fjalet e nje gjuhe “origjinale” huazohen dhe kuptimi konkret I tyre shnderohet ne ate figurative.) (cf. Lith. detis "load, burden," (detyre-detyrim)Gk. thesis "a placing, setting"(thes/thesi , per te permendur ketu eshte edhe fjala theks/theksoj> me fjalen thes nenkuptohet qe mban dicka nje pesh pra dhe shkronja ku vendoset theksi eshte perqendrim ose mban “peshen” e gjithe fjales)), from *dhe- "place, put" (see do). Sense of "written legal document" is early 14c. As a verb, 1806, Amer.Eng. Related: Deeded; deeding.

88. Deep=O.E. deop (adj.) "profound, awful, mysterious; serious, solemn; deepness, depth," deope (adv.), from P.Gmc. *deupaz (cf. O.S. diop, O.Fris. diap, Du. diep, O.H.G. tiof, Ger. tief, O.N. djupr, Dan. dyb, Swed. djup, Goth. diups "deep"), from PIE *dheub- "deep, hollow" (Djep-thell-thelb-themel) (cf. Lith. dubus "deep, hollow, O.C.S. duno "bottom, foundation," Welsh dwfn "deep," O.Ir. domun "world," via sense development from "bottom" to "foundation" to "earth" to "world"). Figurative senses were in O.E.; extended 16c. to color, sound. Deep pocket "wealth" is from 1951. To go off the deep end "lose control of oneself" is slang first recorded 1921, probably in reference to the deep end of a swimming pool, where a person on the surface can no longer touch bottom. The noun is O.E. deop "deep water," especially the sea. When 3-D films seemed destined to be the next wave and the biggest thing to hit cinema since talkies, they were known as deepies (1953).

89. Deity=c.1300, from O.Fr. deité, from L.L. deitatem (nom. deitas) (Dietar)"divine nature," coined by Augustine from L. deus "god," from PIE *deiwos (Di/j-dish-(lexo nga e djatha ne te majt sowied)-Zot: nje transformim ose evoluim i fjales me kalimin e kohes.) (see Zeus)

90. Delian=1620s, "of Delos," tiny island in the Aegean, birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. (vendi ku ka lindur Apollo. Vendi qe lidhet me diellin ashut si Artemis Mbreteresha e Henes, dhe motra e Apollos. Pra njeri lidhet direkt me Diellin dhe tjetra me mungesen e diellit, pra Henen, dhe te dy kan lindur tek ishulli qe quhet Delos. Ky ishull ka qene I shenjt pothuajse 1000vjet para formimit te mitologjis greke dhe me te njejtin emer. Ai ndodhet gjeografikisht po thuajse ne mes te ishujve (pelgjeve) qe ndodhen ne detin Egje, dhe ky eshte ne qender. Eshte veshtire te permendesh Delos dhe te most e kujtoj Diellin. Ne greqisht “Delos” do te thote e qart, e hapur, kohe e hapur ose e kthjellet ndodh vetem kur nuk ka re dhe sigurisht figuron dielli. Shifni fjalen Diurnal) Delian problem "find the length of the side of a cube having double the volume of a given cube," was set by the oracle at Delos when it answered (430 B.C.E.) that the plague in Athens would end when Apollo's (cube-shaped) altar was doubled. The Latin fem. form of the word became the proper name Delia.

91. Demagogue=1640s, from Gk. demagogos "popular leader," also "leader of the mob," from demos (damja) "people" (see demotic) + agogos "leader," from agein "to lead"(agon-agim: ardhja e drites, prejardhja e vjales aga=duke pasure parasysh “ndrimin” e “g” ne “dhe” fjales “agein” I pershtaten fjala “ardhjen” dhe si rrjedhim udhe-urdher-ardh/erdh-udhetoj-udhezim-rrjedh: perfundimisht Agimi eshte ai qe bien driten, pra diten: ketu I pershtatet edhe fjala arg-qe do te thoje I bardhe-zbardhi qe nenkupton ardhjen e drites) (see act). Often a term of disparagement since the time of its first use, in Athens, 5c. B.C.E. Form perhaps influenced by Fr. demagogue (mid-14c.). As a verb, attested by 1964, Amer.Eng.

92. Democracy= 1570s, from M.Fr. démocratie (14c.), from M.L. democratia (13c.), from Gk. demokratia "popular government," from demos (Damja- “demos” ka si rrenje fjalen Da{damja-me da/nda dhe ka marr kuptimin e popullit, popullsive di ngarje nga njeri tjetri} "common people," originally "district" (see demotic), + kratos (Kryeci/Kreret qe vjen nga Kryt/koka shif fjalen Cracy)"rule, strength" (dhe si rrjedhim nenkuptohet fjala Damja e Kryesis/krereve: qe eshte concepti themelues I demokracis: qeverisja nga disa njerez jo vetem nji-sic jane dictatoret) (see -cracy).

93. Demon=late 14c., from L. daemon "spirit," from Gk. daimon "deity, divine power; lesser god; guiding spirit, tutelary deity" (sometimes including souls of the dead); "one's genius, lot, or fortune;" from PIE *dai-mon- "divider, provider" (Da: shqip me Nda/Da: Ndamjen-emri “Damjan”) (of fortunes or destinies), from base *da- "to divide"( Da/nda/Di/Dy: me kuptimin nje “Njeshi” dahet behet Di/Dy) (see tide). Used (with daimonion) in Christian Greek translations and Vulgate for "god of the heathen" and "unclean spirit." Jewish authors earlier had employed the Greek word in this sense, using it to render shedim "lords, idols" in the Septuagint, and Matt. viii.31 has daimones, translated as deofol in O.E., feend or deuil in Middle English. The original mythological sense is sometimes written daemon for purposes of distinction. The Demon of Socrates was a daimonion, a "divine principle or inward oracle." His accusers, and later the Church Fathers, however, represented this otherwise. The Demon Star (1895) is Algol.

94. Dense=early 15c., from M.Fr. dense and directly from L. densus "thick, crowded; cloudy," perhaps from PIE base *dens- "dense, thick" (Dendur-Deng-Dengje(kashte) (cf. Gk. dasus "hairy, shaggy"). Sense of "stupid" is first recorded 1822.

95. Deny=early 14c., from O.Fr. denoiir "deny, repudiate, withhold," from L. denegare "to deny, reject, refuse" (cf. It. dinegarre, Sp. denegar), from de- "away" (see de-) + negare "refuse, say 'no,' " from Old L. nec "not," from Italic base *nek- "not," (Nuk)from PIE base *ne- "no, not" (Nuk-Nata) (see un-). Related: Denied; denying.

96. Desire=early 13c., from O.Fr. desirrer (12c.) "wish, desire, long for," from L. desiderare ) (Deshire-dua) "long for, wish for; demand, expect," original sense perhaps "await what the stars will bring," from the phrase de sidere "from the stars," from sidus (gen. sideris) "heavenly body, star, constellation" (but see consider). Related: Desired; desiring. The noun is attested from c.1300, from O.Fr. desir, from desirer; sense of "lust" is first recorded mid-14c.



97. Devotion=early 13c., from O.Fr. devocion "devotion, piety," from L. devotionem (nom. devotio), noun of action from pp. stem of devovere "dedicate by a vow, sacrifice oneself, promise solemnly," from de- "down, away" (see de-) + vovere "to vow," from votum (Veten, me kuptimin qe te sakrifikosh Veten –“de”dhan-Veten-shiko fjalen Vote) "vow" (see vow). In ancient Latin, "act of consecrating by a vow," also "loyalty, fealty, allegiance;" in Church Latin, "devotion to God, piety." This was the original sense in English; the etymological sense, including secular situations, returned 16c. via Italian and French.

98. Dexterity=1520s, from M.Fr. dexterité (16c.), from L. dexteritatem (nom. dexteritas) "readiness, skillfulness, prosperity," from dexter "skillful," also "right (hand)" (cf. O.Fr. destre, Sp. diestro, etc.), from PIE base *deks- "on the right hand," (Djathta; kety shofim shndrimin e “k” ne “th” dhe del e Djatht) hence "south" to one facing east (cf. Skt. daksinah (djathta) "on the right hand, southern, skillful;" Avestan dashina-(djatht) "on the right hand;" Gk. dexios "on the right hand," also "fortunate, clever;" O.Ir. dess "on the right hand, southern;" Welsh deheu; Gaulish Dexsiva, name of a goddess of fortune; Goth. taihswa; Lith. desinas; O.C.S. desnu, Rus. desnoj). The Latin form is with the comparative suffix -ter, thus meaning etymologically "the better direction." M.E. dester meant "right hand," and in heraldry dexter means "on the right side.

90. Dharma= 1796, in secular sense, "caste custom, right behavior;" ( Ndershmeri) in Buddhism and Hinduism, "moral law," (Nder-I ndershem) from Skt., "law, right, justice," related to dharayati "holds," and cognate with L. firmus, all from PIE base *dher- "to hold, support" (Nder-Nderoj-Ndertoj-Ndertim) (see firm (adj)
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101. Dia=before vowels, di-, prefix meaning "through, thoroughly, entirely," (Dhia, hyp dhe sbret shkembit me te pjert duke bere levizje diagonale, pra dhe fjala diagonal) from Gk. dia-, from dia "through, throughout," probably from the root of duo "two" ??? (see two) with a base sense of "twice

102. Diagonal=1540s (implied in diagonally), from M.Fr. diagonal, from L. diagonalis, from diagonus "slanting line," from Gk. diagonios "from angle to angle," from dia- (Dhia)"across" (see dia-) + gonia "angle," related to gony (gjuni(gjuri)-Gone)"knee" (see knee). As a noun, from 1570s.

103. Diana= c.1200, ancient Italian goddess of the moon, patroness of virginity and hunting, (Diana=Zan, zenia, zer=kap ne gjuheti)later identified with Greek Artemis, and through her with eastern goddesses such as Diana of Ephesus. The name is earlier Diviana, from *diw-yo-, from PIE base *dyeu- "to shine”.(dielli-drite-ndricon)

104. Diction= 1540s, "a word;" 1580s, "expression of ideas in words," from L.L. dictionem (nom. dictio) "a saying, expression, word," from dic-, pp. stem of L. dicere "speak, tell, say," related to dicare "proclaim, dedicate," from PIE base *deik- "to point out" ( duket-dallohet-erfundimisht fjala dallohet ne shqipe nenkupton nje ndamje: ose perqendrohet tek objekti i interesit. Qe do te thote "Ndan" objektin nga ambienti rrethues duke u perqendruar.)(cf. Skt. dic- "point out, show," Gk. deiknynai "to prove," L. digitus "finger," O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show," O.E. teon "to accuse," tęcan "to teach".

105. Dignity=early 13c., from O.Fr. dignite "dignity, privilege, honor," from L. dignitatem (nom. dignitas) "worthiness," from dignus "worth (n.), worthy, proper, fitting" (mendoj se mund te vije nga fjala Ndjenj=denjoj-dinjitet)from PIE *dek-no-, from base *dek- "to take, accept" (see decent).

106. Dine=late 13c., from O.Fr. disner (Mod.Fr. dīner) "to dine, eat, have a meal," originally "take the first meal of the day," from stem of Gallo-Romance *desjunare "to break one's fast," from V.L. *disjejunare, from dis- "undo" (see dis-) + L.L. jejunare (agjinoj) "to fast," from L. jejunus "fasting, hungry. (agjinoj-ndoshta kjo vjen nga Gjini I nenes gjinoj te ushqesh foshnjen (a)gjino eshte e kunderta).

107. Direct(v)= late 14c., "to write (to someone), to address," from L. directus "straight," pp. of dirigere "set straight," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + regere "to guide" (Direkt-drejt-Drejtohet-dirigjon-me kuptimin qe vijon direkt pa ndo nje menjanim) (see regal). Cf. dress; address. Meaning "to govern, regulate" is from c.1500; "to order, ordain" is from 1650s. Sense of "to write the destination on the outside of a letter" is from 16c. Of plays, films, etc., from 1913. Related: Directed; directing.

108. Dis-=assimilated as dif- before -f-, to di- before most voiced consonants), prefix meaning 1. "lack of, not" (e.g. dishonest); 2. "do the opposite of" (e.g. disallow); 3. "apart, away" (e.g. discard), from O.Fr. des- or directly from L. dis- "apart, in a different direction, between," figuratively "not, un-," also "exceedingly, utterly," from PIE *dis- "apart, asunder" (Dysh-dyshim) (cf. O.E. te-, O.S. ti-, O.H.G. ze-, Ger. zer-). The PIE root is a secondary form of *dwis- (Dysh) and thus is related to L. bis "twice" (originally *dvis) and to duo, on notion of "two ways, in twain." In classical Latin, dis- paralelled de- and had much the same meaning, but in L.L. dis- came to be the favored form and this passed into O.Fr. as des-, the form used for new compound words formed in O.Fr., where it increasingly had a privative sense ("not"). In English, many of these words eventually were altered back to dis-, while in French many have been altered back to de-. The usual confusion prevails.

109. Diurnal=late 14c., from L.L. diurnalis "daily," from L. dies "day" + -urnus, an adj. suffix denoting time (cf. hibernus "wintery"). Dies "day" is from PIE base *dyeu- (Dije-dilli/diell)(cf. Skt. diva "by day," Welsh diw, Bret. deiz "day;" Arm. tiw; Lith. diena; O.C.S. dini, Pol. dzien, Rus. den), lit. "to shine" (cf. Gk. delos "clear;" Diell-Del-me kuptimin kthjellet qe del dielli, qielli pa re) L. deus, Skt. deva "god," lit. "shining one;" Avestan dava- "spirit, demon;" Lith. devas, O.N. tivar "gods;" O.E. Tig, gen. Tiwes, see Tuesday.

110. Door= M.E. merger of O.E. dor (neut.; pl. doru) "large door, gate," and O.E. duru (fem., pl. dura) "door, gate, wicket," both from P.Gmc. *dur- (cf. O.S. duru, O.N. dyrr, Dan. dųr, O.Fris. dure, O.H.G. turi, Ger. Tür), from PIE *dhwer- "a doorway, a door, a gate" (Der-dorez-dyert) (cf. Gk. thura, L. foris, Gaul. doro "mouth," Goth. dauro "gate," Skt. dvįrah "door, gate," O.Pers. duvara- "door," O.Prus. dwaris "gate," Rus. dver' "a door"). The base form is frequently in dual or plural, leading to speculation that houses of the original Indo-Europeans had doors with two swinging halves. M.E. had both dure (dyer) and dor (Der); form dore (Dere) predominated by 16c., but was supplanted by door.

111. Dough=O.E. dag "dough," from P.Gmc. *daigaz "something kneaded" (cf. O.N. deig, Swed. deg, M.Du. deech, Du. deeg, O.H.G. teic, Ger. Teig, Goth. daigs "dough"), from PIE *dheigh- "to build, to form, to knead" (Deg-Degezohet: mekuptimin qe shtohet duke ndertuar dege} cf. Skt. dehah "body," lit. "that which is formed," dih- "to besmear;" Gk. teikhos "wall;" L. fingere "to form, fashion," figura "a shape, form, figure;" Goth. deigan "to smear;" O.Ir. digen "firm, solid," originally "kneaded into a compact mass"). Meaning "money" is from 1851.

112. Drab= 1680s, "color of natural, undyed cloth," from M.Fr. drap (see drape). Figurative sense is c.1880. Apparently not related to earlier word meaning "a dirty, untidy woman" (1510s), "a prostitute" (1520s), which seems to be connected with Ir. drabog, Gael. drabag dirty woman," ( ne shqipe eshte perdorur fjala Dra-qe do te thote I turbullt, jo I paster, shif fjalen Dregs)" and perhaps with Low Ger. drabbe ( Dra=llum) "dirt." Ultimately perhaps from PIE *dher- "to make muddy." (Dar=Trazu=llum)Meaning "small, petty debt" (the sense in dribs and drabs) is 1828, of uncertain connection to the other senses.

114. Dragon=early 13c., from O.Fr. dragon, from L. draconem (nom. draco) "huge serpent, dragon," from Gk. Drakon (Dreq-Dreq/c-Drac-ula) (gen. drakontos) "serpent, giant seafish," apparently from drak-, strong aorist stem of derkesthai "to see clearly," from PIE *derk- "to see." Perhaps the lit. sense is "the one with the (deadly) glance." The young are dragonets (14c.). Obsolete drake (Dreq-Drec) "dragon" is an older borrowing of the same word. Used in the Bible to translate Heb. tannin "a great sea-monster," and tan, a desert mammal now believed to be the jackal.

115. Dregs=c.1300 (implied in surname Dryngedregges), from O.N. dregg "sediment," from P.Gmc. *drag- (Dra={Trazuar=llum})(cf. O.H.G. trestir, Ger. Trester "grapeskins, husks"), from PIE *dher- "to make muddy." Replaced O.E. cognate dręst, dęrst "dregs, lees." Figurative use is from 1530s.

116. Druid=1560s, from Fr. druide, from L. druidae (pl.), from Gaulish Druides, from O.Celt. *derwijes, probably representing O.Celt. derwos "true" and *dru- "tree" (Dru: “te drurit”) (especially oak) + *wid-(Di: lexo fjalen Wid nga e majta ne te djathe) "to know" (cf. vision). Hence, lit., perhaps, "they who know the oak" (perhaps in allusion to divination from mistletoe). Anglo-Saxon, too, used identical words to mean "tree" and "truth" (treow). The English form comes via Latin, not immediately from Celtic. The O.Ir. form was drui (dat. and acc. druid; pl. druad); Mod.Ir. and Gael. draoi, gen. druadh (dredh me kuptimin qe te mashtron)"magician, sorcerer." Not to be confused with United Ancient Order of Druids, secret benefit society founded in London 1781.

117. Drusilla=fem. proper name, L. fem. dim. of Drusus, frequent surname in Livian gens, earlier Drausus, perhaps a Celtic word meaning lit. "strong" (cf. O.Celt. *dru- "oak," (Dru) also "strong”.

118. Duke= early 12c., "sovereign prince," from O.Fr. duc (12c.) and directly from L. dux (gen. ducis) "leader, commander," in L.L. "governor of a province," from ducere "to lead," from PIE *deuk- "to lead" (Duket-I dalluar)(cf. O.E. togian "to pull, drag," O.H.G. ziohan "to pull," O.E. togian "to draw, drag," M.Welsh dygaf "I draw"). Applied in English to "nobleman of the highest rank" probably first mid-14c., ousting native earl. Also used to translate various European titles (e.g. Rus. Knyaz).

120. Dust=O.E. dust, from P.Gmc. *dunstaz (cf. O.H.G. tunst "storm, breath," Ger. Dunst "mist, vapor," Dan. dyst "milldust," Du. duist), from PIE *dheu- (1) "dust, smoke, vapor" (Dheu) (cf. Skt. dhu- "shake," L. fumus "smoke"). Meaning "that to which living matter decays" was in O.E., hence, figuratively, "mortal life." The verb is from c.1200, "to rise as dust;" later it came to mean both "to sprinkle with dust" (1590s) and "to rid of dust" (1560s). Sense of "to kill" is U.S. slang first recorded 1938 (cf. bite the dust under bite.

121. Egg= mid-14c., from northern England dialect, from O.N. egg, which vied with M.E. eye, eai (from O.E. ęg) until finally displacing it after 1500; both are from P.Gmc. *ajja(m) (cf. O.S., M.Du., Du., O.H.G., Ger. ei, Goth. ada), probably from PIE *awi- "egg" (Ve/Vo.vez) (cf. O.C.S. aja, Rus. jajco, Bret. ui, Welsh wy, Gk. oon, L. ovum). Caxton (15c.) writes of a merchant (probably a north-country man) in a public house on the Thames who asked for eggs

122. Elastic=1650s, coined in French (1650s) as a scientific term to describe gases, from Mod.L. elasticus, from Gk. Elastos (elastik-lastik{me e tjek-tiqe, llastiqet jane perdorur ne kohet e lashta)) "ductile, flexible," related to elaunein "to strike, beat out," of uncertain origin. Applied to solids from 1670s. Figurative use by 1859. The noun, "cord or string woven with rubber,"( Llastik) is 1847, Amer.Eng.

123. Empiric= c.1600, from L. empiricus "a physician guided by experience," from Gk. empeirikos "experienced," from empeiria "experience," from empeiros "skilled," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + peira "trial, experiment," from PIE *per- "to try, risk." (pervoj-provoj) Originally a school of ancient physicians who based their practice on experience rather than theory. Earlier as a noun (1540s) in reference to the sect, and earliest (1520s) in a sense "quack doctor" which was in frequent use 16c.-19c.

124. Encephailitis=1843, from medical L. encephalon (from Gk. enkephalos "brain," lit. "within the head," from en "in" + kephale (Qefale-Qaf-qeveri- autoqefale (vetqeverisje) "head") + -itis>

125. End= O.E. ende "end, conclusion, boundary, district, species, class," from P.Gmc. *andja (cf. O.Fris. enda, O.Du. ende, Du. einde, O.N. endir "end;" O.H.G. enti "top, forehead, end," Ger. ende, Goth. andeis "end"), originally "the opposite side, (Andej)" from PIE *antjo "end, boundary, (rrenja esht fjala ANE=andej-pertej, nenkuptin nje pik reference, andej kufirit apo andej/ pertej ures: ne ane te, qe nenkupton fundin) " from base *ant- "opposite, in front of, before" (andej, ne ane te-, nenkupton te kunderten ne ane te kundert (see ante). Original sense of "outermost part" is obsolete except in phrase ends of the earth. Sense of "destruction, death" was in O.E. Meaning "division or quarter of a town" was in O.E. The verb is from O.E. endian. The end "the last straw, the limit" (in a disparaging sense) is from 1929. The phrase end run is first attested 1902 in U.S. football; extended to military tactics in World War II; general figurative sense is from 1968. End time in ref. to the end of the world is from 1917. To end it all "commit suicide" is attested by 1911. Be-all and end-all is from Shakespeare ("Macbeth" I.vii.5.

126. Endure= early 14c., "to undergo or suffer" (especially without breaking); late 14c. "to continue in existence," from O.Fr. endurer (12c.) "make hard, harden; bear, tolerate; keep up, maintain," from L. indurare "make hard," in L.L. "harden (the heart) against," from in- (see in- (2)) + durare "to harden," from durus "hard," from PIE *deru- "be firm, solid." (dru-duru-duron) Replaced the important O.E. verb dreogan (pt. dreag, pp. drogen), which survives in dialectal dree. Related: Endured; endures.

127. Enthusiasm=c.1600, from M.Fr. enthousiasme (16c.) and directly from L.L. enthusiasmus, from Gk. enthousiasmos "divine inspiration," from enthousiazein "be inspired or possessed by a god, be rapt, be in ecstasy," from entheos (ethet)"divinely inspired, possessed by a god," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + theos "god" (see Thea). Acquired a derogatory sense of "excessive religious emotion" (1650s) under the Puritans; generalized sense of "fervor, zeal" (Zell) (the main modern sense) is first recorded 1716.

128. Epidemic= c.1600, from Fr. épidémique, from épidemié "an epidemic disease," from M.L. epidemia, from Gk. epidemia "prevalence of an epidemic disease" (especially the plague), from epi "among, upon" (see epi-(pi(mbi)-eperme-epersi) + demos ("people, district") (Damja-ndamja e popullsis/ siduket Demos vjen nga fjala Da=me nda dhe si gjithmone ne Greqishte nje fjale e vetme I pershtatet shume shprehjeve te ndryshme.) (see demotic). As a noun, from 1757; earlier epideme (see epidemy)

129. Epaulet=1783, from Fr. épaulette (16c.), dim. of épaule "shoulder," from O.Fr. espaule (12c.), from L. spatula "flat piece of wood, splint," later "shoulder blade," (shpatulla(e malit, nenkupton dicka rrafsh)) dim. of spatha "broad wooden instrument, broad sword," from Gk. spathe "a broad flat sword" (shpat) (see spade).

130. Epimetheus= do te thote (afterthought) dhe eshte vellaji I Prometheusit= Ne greqisht Epi=Mbi ose ne shqipen e vjeter (Pi) dhe Metheus=mat=ment. Dhe perkthehet “Pas mendimit” , nenkupton nji njeri qe nuk mendon, nuk matet para se te veproj, I rrembyer, behet gjithmone pishman. E kunderta e Prometheusit=paramendimit!.

131. Equine=1765, from L. equinus, from equus "horse," from PIE base *ekwo- "horse" (Kuaj-Kal) (cf. Gk. hippos, (Hip+mbrapa shtesen “oio ose osio” kur hiqet prapashtesa del fjala HIP, qe nenkupton kafshen qe i Hipet.)O.Ir. ech, O.E. eoh, Goth. aihwa-, Skt. aēva-, Avestan aspa-, O.C.S. ehu-, all meaning "horse".

132. Essence=late 14c., essencia (respelled late 15c. on French model), from L. essentia (esht/asht) "being, essence," abstract noun formed in imitation of Gk. ousia (a/asht/eshte)"being, essence" (from on, gen. ontos, prp. of einai "to be"), from essent-, prp. stem of esse "to be," from PIE *es- (a/asht/eshte) (cf. Skt. Asmi (a/asht), Hittite eimi (jam-jemi), O.C.S. jesmi (jam-em-jemi), Lith. Esmi(em-jam-jemi), Goth. imi, O.E. eom (em/jam) "I am;" see be). Originally "substance of the Trinity," the general sense of "basic element of anything" is first recorded in English 1650s, though this is the base meaning of the first English use of essential.

133. Ethnic=late 14c., Scottish, "heathen, pagan," and having that sense first in English; as an adj. from late 15c. from L. ethnicus, Gk. ethnikos, from ethnos "band of people living together, nation, people," prop. “people of one's own kind,” from PIE *swedh-no-, (Vet) suffixed form of base *s(w)e- (Vet)(see idiom). In Septuagint, Gk. ta ethne translates Heb. goyim, pl. of goy "nation," especially of non-Israelites, hence "Gentile nation." Sense of "peculiar to a race or nation" is attested from 1851, a return to the word's original meaning; that of "different cultural groups" is 1935; and that of "racial, cultural or national minority group" is Amer.Eng. 1945; ethnic (Ne shqipe Ethnic shkruhet “Etnike” dhe eshte shume kollaj per te par ose nxjer rrenjen Ate-eterit: perfundimisht “ai grup njerezish qe kan prejardhje nga I njejti Atdhe)) cleansing is attested from 1991.

134. Exact(adj)= precise, rigorous, accurate," 1530s, from L. exactus "precise, accurate, exact," (e sakt- (vjen nga sasija-nje pjes e sakt) pp. of exigere "demand, require, ???" lit. "to drive or force out," also "demand, finish, measure," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + agere "drive, lead, act" (see act) ???.

135. Exaggerate=1530s, "to pile up, accumulate," from L. exaggeratus, pp. of exaggerare "heighten, amplify, magnify," lit. "to heap, pile, load, fill," ( eksagjeroj- gjan-gjer, kuptim figurative te te zgjersosh dicka, ta paraqesesh si dicka me permasa me te medha sec eshte ne realitet) from ex- "thoroughly" (see ex-) + aggerare "heap up," from agger (e gjere)(gen. aggeris) "heap," from aggerere "bring together, carry toward," from ad- "to, toward" + gerere "carry." Sense of "overstate" first recorded in English 1560s. Related: Exaggerated; exaggerating

136. Exampt(adj)= late 14c., from O.Fr. exempt (13c.) and directly from L. exemptus, pp. of eximere "remove, take out, take away; free, release, deliver, make an exception of," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + emere (Merr) "buy," originally "take," from PIE base *em- "to take, distribute" (nem-merr) (cf. L. sumere "to take, obtain, buy," O.C.S. imo "to take," Lith. imui, Skt. yamati "holds, subdues"). For sense shift from "take" to "buy," compare O.E. sellan "to give," source of Mod.Eng. sell "to give in exchange for money;" Heb. laqah "he bought," originally "he took;" and colloquial English I'll take it for "I'll buy it”

137. Fantasy=early 14c., "illusory appearance," from O.Fr. fantaisie (14c.) "vision, imagination," from L. phantasia, from Gk. phantasia "appearance, image, perception, imagination," from phantazesthai "picture to oneself," from phantos "visible," from phainesthai "appear," in late Greek "to imagine, have visions," related to phaos, phos "light," phainein ( me pa-pan- te shikosh) "to show, to bring to light" (see phantasm). Sense of "whimsical notion, illusion" is pre-1400, followed by that of "imagination," which is first attested 1530s. Sense of "day-dream based on desires" is from 1926.

138. Father= O.E. fęder "father, male ancestor," from P.Gmc. *fader (cf. O.S. fadar, O.Fris. feder, Du. vader, O.N. fašir, O.H.G. fater, Ger. vater), from PIE *pəter (At-eter) (cf. Skt. pitar-, Gk. pater, L. pater, O.Pers. pita, O.Ir. athir "father"), presumably from baby-speak sound like pa. The classic example of Grimm's Law, where PIE "p-" becomes Germanic "f-." Spelling with -th- (15c.) reflects widespread phonetic shift in M.E. that turned -der to -ther in many words; spelling caught up to pronunciation in 1500s (cf. burden, murder.

139. Fecund= early 15c., from M.Fr. fecond, from L. fecundus "fruitful, fertile, productive," from *fe-kwondo-, suffixed form of L. base *fe-, corresponding to PIE *dhe(i)- "to suck, suckle," (Thith) also "produce, yield" (pro-dhon-dhe{e kaluara e me dhan) (cf. Skt. dhayati "sucks," dhayah "nourishing;" Gk. thele "mother's breast, nipple," thelys "female, fruitful;" O.C.S. dojiti "to suckle," dojilica "nurse," deti "child;" Lith. dele "leech;" O.Prus. dadan "milk;" Goth. daddjan "to suckle;" O.Swed. dia "suckle;" O.H.G. tila "female breast;" O.Ir. denaim "I suck," dinu "lamb"). Also from the same Latin base come felare "to suck;" femina "woman" (*fe-mna-, lit. "she who suckles"); felix "happy, auspicious, fruitful;" fetus "offspring, pregnancy;" fenum "hay" (probably lit. "produce"); and probably filia/filius "daughter/son," assimilated from *felios, originally "a suckling. (per mendimin tim Femna fjen nga vjala “me mbajt” qe me heret eshte perdorur Man-mbart-mban: fjala Latine Ferro do te thote me mbajt te biesh-bier, F e Latine os anasjelltas, ndrohet ne shqipe ne B. P.sh Faco=Baj, Ferro=Bier)

140. Fever=late O.E. fefor, fefer "fever," from L. febris "fever," related to fovere "to warm, heat," probably from PIE base *dhegh- "burn" (Djeg) (cf. Goth. dags, O.E. dęg "day," originally "the heat"); but some suggest a reduplication of a root represented by Skt. *bhur- "to be restless." Adopted into most Germanic languages (cf. Ger. fieber, Swed. feber, Da. fever), but not in Dutch. English spelling influenced by O.Fr. fievre. Replaced O.E. hrišing. Extended sense of "intense nervous excitement" is from 1580s.

141. Few(adj)= O.E. feawe (pl.; contracted to fea) "few, seldom, even a little," from P.Gmc. *faw- (cf. O.S. fah, O.Fris. fe, O.N. far, Dan. faa, O.H.G. foh "little," Goth. fawai "few"), from PIE *pau- "smallness" (pa-pak-pakic) (cf. L. paucus (pak)"few, little," paullus "little," pauper "poor;" Gk. pauros "few, little," pais (gen. paidos) "child;" L. puer "child, boy," pullus (Pul)"young animal;" Oscan puklu "child;" Skt. potah "a young animal," putrah "son;" O.C.S. puta "bird;" Lith. putytis "young animal, young bird"). Always plural in O.E. Phrase few and far between attested from 1660s. Unusual ironic use in quite a few "many" (1883), earlier a good few (1828). The noun is late 12c., fewe, from the adjective

142. Fiend=O.E. feond "enemy, foe," originally prp. of feogan "to hate," from P.Gmc. *fijęjan (Fajton) (cf. O.Fris. fiand "enemy," O.S. fiond, M.D. viant, Du. vijand "enemy," O.N. fjandi, O.H.G. fiant, Goth. fijands), from PIE base *pe(i)- "to blame, revile" (cf. Goth. faian "to blame;" (Faj-Fajson) see passion). As spelling suggests, it was originally the opposite of friend, but the word began to be used in O.E. for "Satan" (as the "enemy of mankind"), which shifted its sense to "diabolical person" (early 13c.). The old sense of the word devolved to foe, then to the imported word enemy. For spelling with -ie- see field. Meaning "devotee (of whatever is indicated)," e.g. dope fiend, is from 1865.

143. Fier(n)= O.E. fyr, from P.Gmc. *fuir (ziarr, dikur mund te jet shqipetuar ose shkruajtur ziar-zier: Ne latinishte Zjarrit I thueshte “Urre” pra I kjo I afrohet fjales Zjarr: ketu ka kuptim edhe fjala Urrej, me Urry, sepse urrejtja nenkupton nje djegie te brendshme te ndjenjave, pra dhe shprehja “zien nga urrejtja” , “digjesh nga urrejtja” ) (cf. O.S., O.Fris. fiur, O.N. fürr, M.Du., Du. vuur, O.H.G. fiur, Ger. Feuer), from PIE *perjos, (prush) from root *paewr- (zjarr-zier)(cf. Armenian hur "fire, torch," Czech pyr (prush)"hot ashes," Gk. pyr, Umbrian pir (prush) , Skt. pu, Hittite pahhur "fire"). Current spelling is attested as early as 1200, but did not fully displace M.E. fier (preserved in fiery) until c.1600 (zier-zjarr) PIE apparently had two roots for fire: *paewr- (prush-zjarr) and *egni- (thengjill :shprehja “thengjill I mbuluar)(cf. L. ignis). The former was "inanimate," (pra thengjilli pjesa e prushit qe shuhet pak nga pak, mbasi fjlaka(e gjall) eshte shuajtur) referring to fire as a substance, and the latter was "animate," referring to it as a living force (see water

144. Fierce=mid-13c., "proud, noble, bold," from O.Fr. fers, nom. form of fer, fier "strong, overwhelming, violent, fierce, wild; proud, mighty, great, impressive" (Mod.Fr. fier "proud, haughty"), from L. ferus "wild, untamed," from PIE base *ghwer- "wild, wild animal" (Eger-Egersire)(cf. Gk. ther, O.C.S. zveri, Lith. zveris "wild beast"). Original English sense of "brave, proud" died out 16c., but caused the word at first to be commonly used as an epithet, which accounts for the rare instance of a French word entering English in the nominative.

145. Firm(adj)= late 14c., from O.Fr. ferm (12c.) "firm, strong, vigorous, steadfast; loyal, faithful," from L. firmus "firm, strong, steadfast, enduring, stable," from PIE base *dher- "to hold, support" (nder-nderto) (cf. Skt. dharmah (nder)"custom, law," Gk. thronos "seat," Lith. dirzmas "strong," Welsh dir "hard," Breton dir "steel"). The return in late 1500s to -i- from M.E. ferme was modeled on Latin. Related: Firmly; firmness.

146. Flat=early 14c., from O.N. flatr, from P.Gmc. *flataz (cf. O.S. flat "flat, shallow,: O.H.G. flaz "flat, level," O.E. flet (fleta), O.H.G. flezzi "floor"), perhaps from PIE *plat- "to spread"(Petal-peta-- -fleta-fletore-fletet(krahet) e shpendeve, flutura) (cf. Gk. platys "broad, flat;" see place (n.)). Sense of "prosaic, dull" is from 1570s; used of drink from c.1600; of musical notes from 1590s, because the tone is "lowered." Flat-out (adv.) "openly, directly" is from 1932; earlier it was a noun meaning "total failure" (1870, U.S. colloquial.

147. Flock (n.2)- "tuft (Tuf (leshi apo flokesh)of wool," mid-13c., probably from O.Fr. floc, from L. floccus "flock of wool, lock of hair.

148. Fluent=1580s, "flowing freely" (of water, also of speech), (fluent=Luen-luen-luan-Leviz pa penges=Lum, menkupton rrjedhen e ujit qe eshte karakteristike e lumit, rruga apo rrjedha e lumit qe derdhet perfundimisht ne det) from L. fluentem (nom. fluens) "lax, relaxed," figuratively "flowing, fluent," prp. of fluere "to flow, stream, run, melt," qe from PIE *bhleugw-, extended form of *bhleu- (m(b)ledh: nenkupton fryrjen enjtjen e plages)"to swell, well up, overflow" (cf. L. flumen "river;"(lum-lumenj) Gk. phluein "to boil over, bubble up," phlein "to abound"), an extension of base *bhel- (2); see bole. Used interchangeably with fluid in Elizabethan times. Related: Fluently.

149. Fly= to soar through air," O.E. fleogan "to fly" (class II strong verb; past tense fleag, pp. flogen), from W.Gmc. *fleuganan (cf. O.S., O.H.G. fliogan, O.N. flügja, O.Fris. fliaga, M.Du. vlieghen, Du. vliegen, Ger. fliegen), from PIE *pleu- "flowing, floating" (Pluhur-Flutur-fluturon) (see pluvial). Notion of "flapping as a wing does" led to noun sense of "tent flap" (1810), which yielded (1844) "covering for buttons that close up a garment." The noun sense of "a flight, flying" is from mid-15c. Baseball fly ball attested by 1866. Slang phrase fly off the handle "lose one's cool" dates from 1825. To do something on the fly is 1856, apparently from baseball.

150. Foal=O.E. fola "foal, colt," from P.Gmc. *fulon (Pula) (cf. O.S. folo, M.Du., Du. veulen, O.N. foli, O.Fris. fola, O.H.G. folo, Ger. Fohlen (Pule-(Fole{kotec pulash}), Goth. Fula (pula)), from PIE *pulo- "young of an animal" (Pula,) (cf. Gk. polos (pul)"foal," L. pullus "a young animal," Albanian pele "mare"), from base *pau- "few, little" ( Pak)(see paucity). The verb meaning "give birth (to a foal)" is from late 14c.
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Maqellariot, pa dashur te te pres vrullin !!!
Metoda qe po ndjek, nuk eshte rruge e pashkelur, e kane provuar te tjere perpara teje, por cfare duhet patur parasysh?
Mbaj mend !
1-Anglishtja eshte nje gjuhe e grupit gjermanik te gjuheve por dhe me shume fjale me prejardhje latine qe kane hyre ne fjalorin e saj.
2-Drejtperdrejt anglishtja s'ka marre asgje nga shqipja, eshte e kunderta, shqipja dhe sot ashtu si shume gjuhe ne bote(perfshire dhe vete italishten) po huazon nga anglishtja.
3-Latinishtja eshte nje gjuhe e mire-dokumentuar, c'dua te them me kete?! Kushdo qe te tentoje te beje krahasime fjalesh eshte i detyruar te marre fjale nga shqipja e sotme per ta krahasuar me latinishten e (le te themi) para 2000 vjeteve, pra te marresh nje fjale te shqipes se sotme dhe ta krahasosh me nje fjale latine te para 2000 vjeteve eshte nje bumerang lol.

Me kete dua te them, qe shqipja eshte e vjeter, padiskutim po, eshte ilirishtja, por fatkeqesisht, kane mbetur vetem emertime vendesh dhe personash, asgje tjeter, eshte nje gjuhe qe nuk njihet. Me hamendje-ne menyre empirike, nuk mund ti dime fjalet e ilirishtes dhe ne c'menyre ato kane evoluar ne shqip pike


PS.Shume etimologe bile bejne tentativa idiote te ndertojne ne menyre empirike gjuhen proto-indoeuropian....ato qe ne postimet e tua dalin psh from PIE, ca dreqin eshte kjo PIE?! nuk ka proto indo-european language, s'ka asnje artefakt, asnje mbishkrim, asnje fakt te vertyetoje ekzistencen e kesaj gjuhe, ka vetem teorizime budallenjsh etimologe te diteve te sotme.
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i vjetėr 13-11-2011, 03:29   #7
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Citim:
Postimi origjinal ėshtė bėrė nga land Shiko postimin
Maqellariot, pa dashur te te pres vrullin !!!
Metoda qe po ndjek, nuk eshte rruge e pashkelur, e kane provuar te tjere perpara teje, por cfare duhet patur parasysh?
Mbaj mend !
1-Anglishtja eshte nje gjuhe e grupit gjermanik te gjuheve por dhe me shume fjale me prejardhje latine qe kane hyre ne fjalorin e saj.
2-Drejtperdrejt anglishtja s'ka marre asgje nga shqipja, eshte e kunderta, shqipja dhe sot ashtu si shume gjuhe ne bote(perfshire dhe vete italishten) po huazon nga anglishtja.
3-Latinishtja eshte nje gjuhe e mire-dokumentuar, c'dua te them me kete?! Kushdo qe te tentoje te beje krahasime fjalesh eshte i detyruar te marre fjale nga shqipja e sotme per ta krahasuar me latinishten e (le te themi) para 2000 vjeteve, pra te marresh nje fjale te shqipes se sotme dhe ta krahasosh me nje fjale latine te para 2000 vjeteve eshte nje bumerang lol.

Me kete dua te them, qe shqipja eshte e vjeter, padiskutim po, eshte ilirishtja, por fatkeqesisht, kane mbetur vetem emertime vendesh dhe personash, asgje tjeter, eshte nje gjuhe qe nuk njihet. Me hamendje-ne menyre empirike, nuk mund ti dime fjalet e ilirishtes dhe ne c'menyre ato kane evoluar ne shqip pike


PS.Shume etimologe bile bejne tentativa idiote te ndertojne ne menyre empirike gjuhen proto-indoeuropian....ato qe ne postimet e tua dalin psh from PIE, ca dreqin eshte kjo PIE?! nuk ka proto indo-european language, s'ka asnje artefakt, asnje mbishkrim, asnje fakt te vertyetoje ekzistencen e kesaj gjuhe, ka vetem teorizime budallenjsh etimologe te diteve te sotme.
Gjuha hipteze Proto-Indo-Europiane, eshte plotesisht e rindertuar duke u bazuar tek shumica e gjuheve Indo-Europiane, ne vecanti Greqishten, Latinishten dhe Sankritishten. Gjuhetaret kane menduar , ose spekuluar se kjo gjuhe "PIE" ka qene gjuha "Mem" e cila i ka dhene jete te gjithe gjuheve te tjera. "Cuditerisht" gjate "rindertimit" te kesaj gjuhe Shqipja nuk eshte marr parashysh aspak. Me sa kam pare une fjalet shqipe i afrohen fjaleve "rrenje" te PIE me shume se asnje gjuhe tjeter. Fjalet shqipe qe une kam perdore, ne shumicen e rasteve, per te ilustruar afersine qe gjuha shqipe ka me PIE, ne qoftese e ke ven re, jane ne shumic nga Gegenishtja. Dicka tjeter e cuditshme eshte fakti qe Gegnishtja eshte shume e perarfert me "Greqishten" e lashte, me shume edhe se Toskerishtja. Llogjika dikton qe duhet te jete e kunderta!

Anglishtja eshte gjuhe gjermanike por ka si baze edhe latinishten. Fjalet qe kam mbeldhur une jane nje perzierje e te dyja gjuheve, Gjermanishtes dhe Latineshtes.

P.S kam per te prure edhe 150 fjale te tjera. Mund te debatojm gjate e gjere mbasi te kem prure te gjithe shkrimin.
Mano nuk ndodhet nė linjė   Pėrgjigju pėrmes citimit
i vjetėr 13-11-2011, 15:29   #8
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

151. Foam= O.E. fam "foam, saliva froth," from W.Gmc. *faimo- (cf. O.H.G. veim, Ger. Feim), from PIE *(s)poi-mo- (shkum=Sapun=Pshtym) (cf. Skt. phenah; L. pumex "pumice," spuma "foam;" O.C.S. pena "foam;" Lith. spaine "a streak of foam"). The verb is from O.E. famgian "to foam." Related: Foamed; foaming. The rubber or plastic variety so called from 1937.

152. Fold=O.E. faldan (Mercian), fealdan (W.Saxon), transitive, "to bend cloth back over itself," class VII strong verb (past tense feold, pp. fealden), from P.Gmc. *falthanan (cf. M.Du. vouden, Du. vouwen, O.N. falda, M.L.G. volden, O.H.G. faldan, Ger. falten, Goth. falžan), from PIE *pel-to-(palos) (cf. Skt. putah "fold, pocket," Alb. pale "fold,”??? M.Ir. alt "a joint," Lith. pleta “I plait”), from base *pel- "to fold" (palos) (see poly-). The weak form developed from 15c. In late O.E. also of the arms. Intrans. sense, “become folded” is from c.1300 (of the body or limbs); earlier “give way, fail” (mid-13c.). Sense of "to yield to pressure" is from late 14c. Related: Folded; folding. The noun meaning "a bend or ply in anything" is mid-13c., from the verb.

153. Folklore= 1846, coined by antiquarian William J. Thoms (1803-1885) as an Anglo-Saxonism (replacing popular antiquities) and first published in the "Athenaeum" of Aug. 22, 1846, from folk + lore. O.E. folclar meant "homily." This word revived folk in a modern sense of "of the common people, whose culture is handed down orally,(Fol/fjal-Lore=ler: dhe del fjale e lene-e trasheguar: dicka e trasheguar me gojedhena.)" and opened up a flood of compound formations, e.g. folk art (1892), folk-hero (1874), folk-medicine (1877), folk-tale/folk tale (1850; O.E. folctalu meant “genealogy”), folk-song (1847), folk singer (1876), folk-dance (1877).

154. Foot=O.E. fot, from P.Gmc. *fot (cf. O.S. fot, O.N. fotr, Du. voet, O.H.G. fuoz, Ger. Fuß, Goth. fotus "foot"), from PIE *ped- (Posht- (pjesa a poshtme e kembes, ajo pjes qe eshte poshte gjithe pjeses tjeter te kembes..)(cf. Avestan pad-; Skt. pat, acc. padam "foot;" Gk. pos, (Posht) Attic pous, gen. podos; L. pes, gen. pedis "foot;" Lith. padas "sole," (sholl-(sholli I kepuces) peda "footstep"). Plural form feet is an instance of i-mutation. Of a bed, grave, etc., first recorded c.1300.

155. Fore=O.E. fore (prep.) "before, in front of;" (adv.) "before, previously," common Germanic (cf. O.H.G. fora, O.Fris. fara, Ger. vor, Goth. faiura, O.N. fyrr "for"); from PIE *per- (per {per kete apo ate) (cf. Skt. Pura (para) "before, formerly;" Avestan paro (para) "before;" Hittite para- (Para) "on, forth;" Gk. paros (pari, para)"before," para "from beside, beyond," peri (perreth)"around, about, toward," pro "before;" L. pro "before, for, on behalf of, instead of," prae (pra-para) "before," per (neper) "through, for;" O.C.S. pra-dedu "great-grandfather;" Lith. per-). As a noun, from 1630s. The warning cry in golf is first recorded 1878, probably a contraction of before.

156. Foreign=mid-13c., ferren, foreyne "out of doors," from O.Fr. forain "strange, foreign; outer, external, outdoor; remote, out-of-the-way" (12c.), from M.L. foranus "on the outside, exterior," from L. foris "outside," lit. "out of doors," related to for1s "door," from PIE *dhwor-ans-, from base *dhwer- "door, doorway" (Der) (see door). Spelling altered 17c. perhaps by influence of reign, sovereign. Replaced native fremd. Sense of "not in one's own land" is first attested late 14c.
.
157. Found(1)= "establish," late 13c., from O.Fr. founder (12c., Mod.Fr. fonder), from L. fundare "to lay the bottom or foundation of something," from fundus (Fund: mendoj se edhe kjo fjal ka prejardhjen nga fjala “Ane” qe nenkupton kufizim, ne ane te, ne fund te) "bottom, foundation" (see fund (n.)). Related: Founded(u Themelua); founding. Phrase founding fathers with reference to the creators of the American republic is attested from 1916.

158. Four= O.E. feower, from P.Gmc. *petwor- (cf. O.S. fiwar, O.Fris. fiuwer, Frank. fitter-, Du. and Ger. vier, O.N. fjorir, Dan. fire, Swed. fyra, Goth. fidwor "four"), from PIE *kwetwer- "four" (kater: i ngaterum, i katerum) (cf. Skt. catvarah, Avestan čathwaro, Pers. čatvar, Gk. tessares, L. quattuor, Oscan petora, O.C.S. četyre, Lith. keturi, O.Ir. cethir, Welsh petguar). The phonetic evolution of the Germanic forms has not been fully explained

159. Freak out (n)= also freakout “bad psychedelic drug trip or something comparable to one,” (Frik-Frigohem-Frikesohem; me kuptimin e paranojes) 1966 (despite an amusing coincidental appearance of the phrase dug up by the OED in "Fanny Hill" from 1749), from verbal phrase freak out, attested from 1965 in the drug sense (from 1902 in a sense "change, distort, come out of alignment"); see freak. Freak (n.) "drug user" is attested from 1945.

160. Fresh(1)= late 13c. "unsalted, pure, sweet, eager," metathesis of O.E. fersc "unsalted," from W.Gmc. *friskaz (cf. O.Fris. fersk, M.Du. versch, Du. vers, O.H.G. frisc, Ger. frisch "fresh"), probably cognate with O.C.S. presinu "fresh," Lith. preskas "sweet." The metathesis, and the expanded M.E. senses of "new, pure, eager" are probably by influence of (or in some instances, from) O.Fr. fres (fem. fresche), from P.Gmc. *frisko-, (Fresk-Freskon-Fryn) and thus related to the English word. The Germanic root also is the source of It., Sp. fresco. Related: Freshly; freshness.

161. Friction=1560s, "a chafing, rubbing," from M.Fr. friction (16c.) and directly from L. frictionem (nom. frictio) "a rubbing, rubbing down," noun of action from pp. stem of fricare (Ferkon-freksioni-frena)"to rub." Sense of "resistance to motion" is from 1722; figurative sense of "disagreement, clash" first recorded 1761. Related: Frictional.

162. Fry(v)= late 13c., from O.Fr. frire "to fry" (13c.), from L. frigere (fergon) "to roast or fry," from PIE *bher- "to cook, bake" (cf. Skt. bhrjjati "roasts," bharjanah "roasting;" Pers. birishtan "to roast;" Gk. phrygein (Fergon, me Fergu) "to roast, bake"). Meaning "execute in the electric chair" is U.S. slang from 1929. To go out of the frying pan into the fire is first attested in Thomas More (1532). Related: Fried; frying. As a noun, from 1630s. Frying pan recorded from mid-14c.

163. Fume= late 14c., from O.Fr. fum "smoke, steam, vapor, breath," from L. fumus (Tymos) "smoke, steam, fume" (cf. It. fumo, Sp. humo), from PIE *dheu-(Dheu-Duhan-dehu {nga {ashishi} apo pluhur-Tym) (cf. Skt. dhumah, O.C.S. dymu, Lith. dumai, O.Prus. dumis "smoke," M.Ir. dumacha "fog," Gk. thymos "spirit, mind, soul")( ne mitologjine “Greke” Tymi personifikonte shpirtin). The verb is first recorded c.1400, "to fumigate," from O.Fr. fumer, from L. fumare "to smoke, steam;" figurative sense of "show anger" is first recorded 1520s. Related: Fumed; fumes; fuming.( ne anglishte egzistojn shprehje si “I am fuming /I am steaming” = Jam ber tym)

164. Fund= 1660s, from Fr. fond "a bottom, floor, ground" (12c.), also "a merchant's basic stock or capital," from L. fundus "bottom, foundation, piece of land," from PIE base *bhudh- (Byth)"bottom, base" (cf. Skt. budhnah, Gk. pythmen (byth-themel) "foundation, bottom," O.E. botm (byth)"lowest part;" see bottom). The verb is from 1776, from the noun. Related: Funded; funding. Funds "money at one's disposal" is from 1728. Fund-raiser (also fundraiser) first attested 1957.

165. Gallant=early 15c., "showy, finely dressed," from O.Fr. galant "courteous," (Gjalle-Gjalleruar) earlier "amusing, entertaining; lively, bold" (14c.), prp. of galer "make merry," generally held to be from Frankish *wala- "good, well," from P.Gmc. *wal- (cf. O.H.G. wallon "to wander, go on a pilgrimage"), from PIE *wel- "to wish, will" (Vullnet-vrull)(see will (v.)), "but the transition of sense offers difficulties that are not fully cleared up" [OED]. Sense of "politely attentive to women" was adopted 17c. from French. The noun, "man of fashion and pleasure," is from mid-15c.; earlier "dissolute man, rake" (late 14c).

166. Gambit="chess opening in which a pawn is risked for advantage later," 1650s, gambett, from It. gambetto, lit. "a tripping up" (as a trick in wrestling), from gamba "leg," (Kama-kemba) from L.L. gamba (kama/kamba) (see gambol). Applied to chess openings in Spanish in 1561 by Ruy Lopez, who traced it to the Italian word, but the form in Spanish generally was gambito, which led to Fr. gambit, which has influenced the English spelling of the word. Broader sense of "opening move meant to gain advantage" in English is recorded from 1855.

167. Gambol="frolic, merrymaking," 1590s, originally gambolde "a leap or spring" (c.1500), from M.Fr. gambade (15c.), from L.L. gamba "horse's hock or leg," from Gk. kampe "a bending" (on notion of "a joint"), from PIE *kamp- "to bend" (Kama/kamba) (see campus). The verb is first attested 1580s; earlier gambade (c.1500), from M.Fr. gambader. Related: Gamboled; gamboling; gambolling.

168. Gape=early 13c., from an unrecorded O.E. word or else from O.N. gapa (grop-hap-goje)"to open the mouth, gape," common West Germanic (cf. M.Du., Du. gapen, Ger. gaffen "to gape, stare," Swed. gapa, Dan. gabe), from PIE *ghai- (hap-goje-Grop) (see gap). Related: Gaped; gaping. As a noun, from 1530s.

169. Gash=1540s, from M.E. garce (early 13c.), from O.N.Fr. garser "to scarify, cut, slash" (O.Fr. *garse), apparently from V.L. *charassare, from Gk. kharassein (kruaj: te gryesh apo kruash) "engrave," from PIE *gher- "to scrape, scratch" (Gryej-germoj-Kruaj) (cf. character). Loss of -r- is characteristic (see bass, bust, etc.). Slang use for "vulva" dates to mid-1700s. As a verb, 1560s, alteration of garsen (late 14c.), from O.N.Fr. garser. Related: Gashed; gashing.

170. Gastric=1650s, with -ic + Gk. gaster (gen. gastros) "stomach," by dissimilation from *graster, lit. "eater, devourer," from gran "to gnaw, eat,(me Gran -perdoret edhe sote e kesaj dite ne dialektin Geg-me Ngran-gryej)" from PIE base *gras- "to devour" (Grysh-gryen) (cf. Gk. grastis "green fodder," L. gramen "fodder, grass," O.E. cęrse "cress".

171. Geometry= early 14c., from O.Fr. géométrie (12c.), from L. geometria, from Gk. geometria "measurement of earth or land; geometry," from comb. form of ge (Dhe-Gje)"earth, land" + -metria (Dhe/Gjo-e-matur-gjeometri: Matja e Tokes ) (see -metry).

172. Gesundheit=1914, from Ger. Gesundheit, (Shendet) lit. "health!" Also in toast auf ihre Gesundheit ( gezuar–shendet)"to your health" (see sound (adj.)). Lith. aciu, echoic of the sound of a sneeze, has come to mean "good luck, God bless you." See also God.

173. Giant=c.1300, from O.Fr. geant, earlier jaiant (12c.), from V.L. *gagantem (nom. gagas), from L. gigas "giant," from Gk. gigas (I Giat/Gjat-Gjan/Gjer-) (gen. gigantos), one of a race of savage beings, sons of Gaia and Uranus, eventually destroyed by the gods, probably from a pre-Greek language. Replaced O.E. ent, eoten, also gigant. The Greek word was used in Septuagint to refer to men of great size and strength, hence the expanded use in modern languages. Of very tall persons from 1550s; of persons who have any quality in extraordinary degree, (I gjere-i/e Gjan) from 1530s.

174. Glow=O.E. glowan "to glow, shine as if red-hot," from P.Gmc. base *glo- (cf. O.S. gloian, O.Fris. gled "glow, blaze," O.N. gloa, O.H.G. gluoen, Ger. glühen "to glow"), from PIE *ghel (gjelbert-qiell-, me kuptimin e ndricimit ose rreflektimit, ndoshta edhe fjale Qelq fjen nga kjo)

175. Glue=early 13c., from O.Fr. glu "birdlime" (12c.), from L.L. glutem (nom. glus) "glue," from L. gluten "glue, beeswax," from PIE *gleit- "to glue, paste" (Ngjit-njit, qe vjen nga vjala Nji-me bashku qe ta besh nji-me njit-“njejesosh”(cf. Lith. glitus "sticky," glitas "mucus;" O.E. cliša "plaster"), from base *glei- "to stick together" (see clay). In reference to glue from boiled animal hoofs and hides, c.1400. The verb is attested from late 14c., from O.Fr. gluer, from glu. Related: Glued; gluing. Glue-sniffing attested from 1963

176. Glut=early 14c., "to swallow too much; to feed to repletion," probably from O.Fr. gloter "to swallow, gulp down," from L. gluttire "swallow, gulp down," from PIE base *gwele- "to swallow" (gelltis-gllenk) (cf. Rus. glot "draught, gulp"). Related: Glutted; glutting. The noun (1530s), from the verb, originally meant "a gulp;" meaning "condition of being full or sated" is 1570s; mercantile sense is first recorded 1590s.

177. Gnostic= 1580s, "believer in a mystical religious doctrine of spiritual knowledge," from L.L. Gnosticus, from Late Gk. Gnostikos, noun use of adj. gnostikos "knowing, able to discern," from gnostos (njohesh)"knowable," from gignoskein (te njohesh- me kuptimin qe e njoh (di) shume mire kete apo ate subjekt) "to learn, to come to know" (see know). Applied to various early Christian sects that claimed direct personal knowledge beyond the Gospel or the Church hierarchy. The adj. meaning "relating to knowledge" (with lower-case g-) is from 1650s.

178. Go=O.E. gan "to go, advance, depart; happen; conquer; observe," from W.Gmc. *gai-/*gę- (cf. O.S., O.Fris. gan, M.Du. gaen, Du. gaan, O.H.G. gan, Ger. gehen), from PIE *ghe- "to release, let go" (Shko-Hik-Heke)(cf. Skt. jihite (Hike)"goes away," Gk. kikhano "I reach, meet with"), but there is not general agreement on cognates.

179. Gold= E. gold, from P.Gmc. *gulth- (cf. O.S., O.Fris., O.H.G. gold, Ger. Gold, M.Du. gout, Du. goud, O.N. gull, Dan. guld, Goth. gulž), from PIE base *ghel- "yellow, green," (Gjelber) possibly ultimately "bright" (cf. O.C.S. zlato, Rus. zoloto, Skt. hiranyam, O.Pers. daraniya-, Avestan zaranya- "gold;" see Chloe). As an adjective from c.1200. In reference to the color of the metal, it is recorded from c.1400. Gold rush is attested from 1859, originally in an Australian context. Gold medal as first prize in a contest is from 1908.

180. Grab= 1580s, from M.Du. or M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab (cf. O.E. gręppian "to seize," O.S. garva, O.H.G. garba "sheaf," lit. "that which is gathered up together"), from PIE *ghrebh- "to seize, reach" (Grabit-Grabitqar) (cf. Skt. grbhnati "seizes," O.Pers. grab- "seize" as possession or prisoner, O.C.S. grabiti ( Grabiti) "to seize, rob," Lith. grebiu "to rake"). Sense of "to get by unscrupulous methods" reinforced by grab game, a kind of swindle, attested from 1846. Related: Grabbed; grabbing.

181. Gram= metric unit of weight," 1797, from Fr. gramme (18c.), from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," (Germa-grimc)) from stem of graphein "to draw, write" (see -graphy). Adopted into English about two years before it was established in France as a unit in the metric system by law of 19 frimaire, year VIII (1799).

182. Graphy= comb. form meaning “process of writing or recording” or “a writing, recording, or description,” from Fr. or Ger. -graphie, from Gk. -graphia "description of," from graphein “write, express by written characters," earlier "to draw, represent by lines drawn,” originally "to scrape, scratch" (on clay tablets with a stylus), from PIE base *gerbh- "to scratch, carve" (germo-germa-gervisht) (see carve). In modern use, especially in forming names of descriptive sciences.

183. Grind(v)= O.E. grindan "to rub together, grate, scrape," forgrindan "destroy by crushing" (class III strong verb; past tense grand, pp. grunden), from P.Gmc. *grindanan (cf. Du. grenden), related to ground, from PIE *ghrendh- "to grind" (me u grind(te haesh me fjal)-grry, gdhend, gervisht-edhe rend – Rendja) (cf. L. frendere "to gnash the teeth," Gk. khondros "corn, grain," Lith. grendu (gryen-gdhend)"to scrape, scratch"). Meaning "to make smooth or sharp by friction" is from c.1300. Most other Germanic languages use a verb cognate with L. molere (mulli-Miell-bluan) (cf. Du. malen, O.N. mala, Ger. mahlen.

184. Gross (adj)= mid-14c., "large;" early 15c., "coarse, plain, simple," from O.Fr. gros (trash) "big, thick, fat, tall, pregnant; coarse, rude, awkward; ominous, important; arrogant" (11c.), from L.L. grossus (Grosh-(Fasule)Trash, me kuptimin gjell e trash, sic eshte grosha)"thick, coarse (of food or mind)," of obscure origin, not in classical Latin. Said to be unrelated to L. crassus, which meant the same thing, or to Ger. gross "large," but said by Klein to be cognate with O.Ir. bres, M.Ir. bras "big." Its meaning forked in English to "glaring, flagrant, monstrous" (1580s) on the one hand and "entire, total, whole" (early 15c.) on the other. Meaning "disgusting" is first recorded 1958 in U.S. student slang, from earlier use as an intensifier of.

185. Gusto=1620s, from It. gusto "taste," from L. gustus "a tasting," related to gustare "to taste, take a little of," from PIE base *geus- "to taste, choose" (mund te lidhim fjalet-Gjuh-Gjuhes; organ I shijes) (cf. Skt. jus-(josh) "enjoy, be pleased," Avestan zaosa- "pleasure," O.Pers. dauš- (dasht-me dash-duash) "enjoy"), a root that forms words for "taste" in Greek and Latin, but mostly meaning "try" or "choose" in Germanic and Celtic (cf. O.E. cosan, cesan "to choose," Goth. kausjan "to test, to taste of," O.H.G. koston "try," Ger. kosten "taste of"). The semantic development could have been in either direction. In English, guste (gjuha) "organ of taste, sense of taste," is mid-15c., from French.

186. Gymnasic=1570s, from L. gymnasticus, from Gk. gynmastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train" (gjymtyret-te stervisesh gjymtyret duke bere ushtrime) (see gymnasium).

187. Harmony= ( me Arnu- me kuptimin figurative qe te bashkosh dy tinguj qe te duken si nje, simetri tingujsh) 14c., from O.Fr. armonie "harmony," also the name of a musical instrument (12c.), from L. harmonia, from Gk. harmonia "agreement, concord of sounds," also as a proper name, the personification of music, lit. "means of joining," used of ship-planks, etc., also "settled government, order," related to harmos "fastenings of a door; shoulder," from PIE *ar-ti-, from *ar- (Arno) "to fit together" (see arm (n.1)). Musical sense is oldest in English; that of "agreement of feeling, concord" is from late 14c.

188. Harsh=originally of texture, "hairy," 1530s, probably from harske "rough, coarse, sour" (c.1300), a northern word of Scandinavian origin (cf. Dan. and Norw. harsk "rancid, rank"), related to M.L.G. harsch "rough, raw," probably from PIE base *qars- "to scrape, scratch, rub" (me qeru/qerosh-kruaj) (cf. Lith. karsiu (kreh-krer))"to comb," O.C.S. krasta, Rus. korosta "to itch," L. carduus "thistle," Skt. kasati "rubs, scratches.

189. Have= O.E. habban "to own, possess," from P.Gmc. *khaf- (cf. O.N. hafa, O.S. hebbjan, O.Fris. habba, Ger. haben, Goth. haban "to have"), from PIE *kap- "to grasp" (Kap-Kam) (see capable).

190. He=O.E. he (see paradigm of O.E. third person pronoun below), from P.Gmc. *hiz, from P.Gmc. base *khi-, from PIE *ki-, the "this, here" (kjo- ky- ketu-Ki, kjo e fundit perdoret ne gegerishten, gjenia mashkullore) (as opposed to "that, there") root (cf. Hittite ki "this," Gk. ekeinos "that person," O.C.S. si, Lith. šis "this"), and thus the source of the third person pronouns in Old English. The feminine, hio, was replaced in early M.E. by forms from other stems (see she), while the h- wore off O.E. neut. hit to make modern it. The Proto-Germanic root is also the source of the first element in Ger. heute "today," lit. "the day" (cf. O.E. heodęg). Slang he-man "masculine fellow" is from 1832, originally among U.S. pioneers.

191. Head(n)= O.E. heafod "top of the body," also "upper end of a slope," also "chief person, leader, ruler," from P.Gmc. *khaubuthan (cf. O.S. hobid, O.N. hofuš, O.Fris. haved, Ger. Haupt, Goth. haubiž "head"), from PIE *kauput- "head" (kapuc-Koke-krye-kaptine) (cf. Skt. kaput-, L. caput "head"), also "bowl" (as in skull). Modern spelling is early 15c., representing what was then a long vowel (as in heat). Of rounded tops of plants from late 14c. Meaning "origin of a river" is late 14c. Meaning "obverse of a coin" is from 1680s; meaning "foam on a mug of beer" is first attested 1540s; meaning "toilet" is from 1748, based on location of crew toilet in the bow (or head) of a ship. Synechdochic use for "person" (as in head count) is first attested 1530s; of cattle, etc., in this sense from 1510s. Meaning "drug addict" (usually in a compound with the preferred drug as the first element) is from 1911.

192. Hen=O.E. hen, from W.Gmc. *khannjo (Keno-kendoj) (cf. M.Du. henne, O.H.G. henna), fem. of *khan(e)ni (kenu-me kuptimin ai qe kenon)"male fowl, cock" (cf. O.E. hana "cock"), lit. "bird who sings for sunrise," from PIE base *kan- "to sing" (kianz[qian}-kanu-kang) (see chant). The original masculine word survives in German (Hahn "cock"), Swedish, Danish, etc.; extension to "female of any bird species" is early 14c. in English. Hen as slang for "woman" dates from 1620s; hence hen party "gathering of women," first recorded 1887. Among Middle English proverbial expressions was nice as a nonne hen “over-refined, fastidiously wanton” (c.1500); to singen so hen in snowe “sing miserably,” lit. “sing like a hen in snow” (c.1200)

193. Herd(n)= O.E. heord, from P.Gmc. *kherdo- (cf. O.N. hjorš, O.H.G. herta, Ger. Herde, Goth. hairda "herd"), from PIE *kherdha- "a row, group" (Rradha-Rradhis)(cf. Skt. sardhah "herd, troop," O.C.S. creda "herd," Gk. korthys "heap," Lith. kerdzius "shepherd"). Herd instinct in psychology is first recorded 1908.

194. Hesitation= 1620s, from L. haesitationem (nom. haesitatio) "irresolution, uncertainty," from haesitare "stick fast, stammer in speech, be undecided," frequentative of haerere (Hesitate=Heshtje-eshte nje lloj hezitimi) "stick, cling," from PIE *ghais-eyo (Ngis-me Ngjit me mastic- mund ti pershtatet edhe fjala Ngjan Ngjason: mendoj se kan te njejtern rrenj, fjala Nji/e) (cf. Lith. gaistu "to delay, tarry.

195. Honor(n)= c .1200, "glory, renown, fame earned," from Anglo-Fr. honour, from O.Fr. honor, from L. honorem (nom. honos) "honor, dignity, office, reputation," of unknown origin. (ner-me neru-, ne toskerishten nder-ndero-nderto) Till 17c., honour and honor were equally frequent; the former now preferred in England, the latter in U.S. by influence of Noah Webster's spelling reforms. Meaning "a woman's chastity" first attested late 14c

196. Host(1)= person who receives guests," late 13c., from O.Fr. hoste "guest, host" (12c.), from L. hospitem (nom. hospes) "guest, host," lit. "lord of strangers," from PIE *ghostis- "stranger" (Gostit-gostis) (cf. O.C.S. gosti "guest, friend," gospodi "lord, master;" see guest). The biological sense of "animal or plant having a parasite" is from 1857. The verb is early 15c., from the noun. Related: Hosted; hosting.

197. Hound= O.E. hund (Hunda)"dog," from P.Gmc. *khundas (cf. Ger. Hund, O.N. hundr, Goth. hunds), from PIE *kuntos, dental enlargement of base *kwon- (Ken/Qen-ndoshta edhe fjala Qan/ qe me perpara ka qen Kian ) "dog" (see canine). Meaning narrowed 12c. to "dog used for hunting." The verb sense of "urge on, incite" is first attested 1520s, that of "pursue relentlessly" is first recorded c.1600. Related: Hounded; hounding.

198. Hover=c.1400, hoveren, frequentative of hoven "hover, tarry, linger" (mid-13c.), of unknown origin, (Hava- me qene ne hava) chiefly nautical at first, of ships standing off a coast. Related: Hovered; hovering

199. Hunger= O.E. hungor "unease or pain caused by lack of food, craving appetite, debility from lack of food," from P.Gmc. *khungrus (Gryn-me kuptimin qe stomaku fillon te gryej nga urija-mungesa e ushqimit-ndoshta keq perdorimi I fjales shqip me hanger) (cf. O.H.G. hungar, O.N. hungr, Ger. hunger, Du. honger, Goth. huhrus), probably from PIE base *kenk- "to burn, be dry, pain”???

200. Hurdle=.E. hyrdel "frame of intertwined twigs used as a temporary barrier," dim. of hyrd "door," from P.Gmc. *khurdis (kurdis-)(cf. Ger. Hürde "hurdle, fold, pen;" O.N. hurš, Goth. haurds "door"), from PIE *krtis (Kurdis-Kurth) (cf. L. cratis "hurdle, wickerwork," Gk. kartalos "a kind of basket," kyrtos "fishing creel"), from base *kert- (Kurth) "to weave, twist together" (cf. Skt. krt "to spin"). Sense of "barrier to jump in a race" first recorded 1833; figurative sense of "obstacle" is 1924. The verb is attested from 1590s, "to build like a hurdle;" sense of "to jump over" dates from 1896. Related: Hurdled; hurdles; hurdling.
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201. Hydroponics=1937, formed in English from hydro- + -ponics, from Gk. ponein (poune(Geg) –pune(Tosk) "to labor, toil," from ponos (Pun-punosh)"labor" (see span (v.)). Related: Hydroponic (adj)


202. Hyper-=from Gk. hyper (prep. and adv.) "over, beyond, overmuch, above measure" (Hyp) (see super.=(Siper)

203. Hyperbaric=1930, from hyper- + Gk. barys (Barr)“heavy” (see grave (adj)

204. Hyperion=a Titan, son of Uranus and Gaea, later identified with Apollo, from Greek, lit. "he who looks from above” (i/e Hypur/Siper: nenkupton lartesi, shtatgjate)

205. Idiom= 1580s, "form of speech peculiar to a people or place," from M.Fr. idiome, from L.L. idioma "a peculiarity in language," from Gk. idioma "peculiarity, peculiar phraseology," from idioumai "I make my own," from idios "personal, private," properly “particular to oneself,” from PIE *swed-yo-, (Vet- (per)vedi-vetes)) suffixed form of base *s(w)e-, pronoun of the third person and reflexive (referring back to the subject of a sentence), also used in forms denoting the speaker's social group, "(we our-)selves"

206. Idea=early 15c., "figure, image, symbol," from L. idea "idea," and in Platonic philosophy "archetype," from Gk. idea "ideal prototype," lit. "look, form," from idein "to see," from PIE *wid-es-ya-, suffixed form of base *weid- "to see" (Di-dieni-dituri: shikoni fjalen Vision) (see vision). Sense of "result of thinking" first recorded 1640s.

207. Idol=mid-13c., "image of a deity as an object of (pagan) worship," from O.Fr. idole, from L.L. idolum "image (mental or physical), form," used in Church Latin for "false god," from Gk. eidolon (I dalluar- idhull) "appearance," later "mental image, apparition, phantom, " also "material image, statue," from eidos "form" (see -oid). Figurative sense of "something idolized" is first recorded 1560s. Meaning "a person so adored" is from 1590s; hence idolize.

208. Ignorant=late 14c., from O.Fr. ignorant, from L. ignorantia, from ignorantem, prp. of ignorare from in- "not" + Old L. gnarus (njohes-njouri) "aware, acquainted with," from Proto-Latin suffixed form *gno-ro-, (njo/h) related to gnoscere (njohesh) "to know" (see know). Form influenced by ignotus "unknown." Cf. also uncouth. Colloquial sense of "ill-mannered" first attested 1886.

209. Illumination= mid-14c., "spiritual enlightenment," from O.Fr. illumination, from L. illuminationem (nom. illuminatio), from illuminare "to throw into light," from in- "in" (with assimilation of -n- to the following consonant) + lumen (lumturi-lum si…besoj se ky koncept vjen nga “ylli” qe nenkupton ndricim, njeri (iluminato= I ndritur, )(gen. luminis=(yll-ill)) "light," related to lucere "to shine" (see light (n.)). Meaning "the action of lighting" is from 1560s.

210. Immolate=1540s, "to sacrifice, kill as a victim," originally an adj. (1530s), from L. immolatus, pp. of immolare "to sacrifice," originally "to sprinkle with sacrificial meal," from in- "upon" + mola (salsa) "(sacrificial) meal," related to molere "to grind[grryej]" (mulli-miell) (see mallet). Related: Immolated; immolating.

211. Immure=1580s, from M.L. immurare, (myll/mbyll/mur) lit. "to shut up within walls," from L. in- "in" + murus (Mur) "wall" (see mural). Related: Immured; immuring.

212. Infer=1520s, from L. inferre "bring into, cause,( ne shqipe kjo perkthehet “bier ne”) " from in- "in" + ferre "carry, bear," from PIE *bher- (1) "to bear, to carry, to take" (bier-bie-mbaj) (cf. Skt. bharati (barr-Mban/mbart) "carries;" Avestan baraiti "carries;" O.Pers. barantiy "they carry;" Armenian berem "I carry;" Gk. pherein "to carry;" O.Ir. beru/berim "I catch, I bring forth;" Goth. bairan "to carry;" O.E., O.H.G. beran, O.N. bera "barrow;" O.C.S. birati "to take;" Rus. brat' "to take," bremya (breng) "a burden"). Sense of "draw a conclusion" is first attested 1520s

213. Inter-= L. inter (prep., adj.) "among, between," from PIE *enter "between, among" (Qender-nder:nder-mjetes: Nder-kombetare) (cf. Skt. antar, O.Pers. antar "among, between," Gk. entera (pl.) "intestines," O.Ir. eter, O.Welsh ithr "among, between," Goth. undar, O.E. under "under"), a comparative of *en- "in."

214. Ion= 1834, introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (suggested by the Rev. William Whewell, Eng. polymath), coined from Gk. ion, neut. prp. of ienai "go," from PIE base *ei- "to go, to walk" (eja-ecim-ik) (cf. Gk. eimi "I go;" L. ire "to go," iter "a way;" O.Ir. ethaim "I go;" Ir. bothar "a road" (from *bou-itro- "cows' way").
2
15. Ionian= "of Ionia," the districts of ancient Greece inhabited by the Ionians (including Attica and the north coast of the Peloponnesus, but especially the coastal strip of Asia Minor, including the islands of Samos and Chios). The name probably is pre-Greek, (I Joni) perhaps related to Skt. yoni "womb, vulva,"??? and a reference to goddess-worshipping people. Also used of the sea that lies between Italy and the northern Peloponnesus (1630s). The musical Ionian mode (1844) corresponds to our basic major scale but was characterized by the Greeks as soft and effeminate. ( gjate kohes se perandorise Rromake Deti Jone eshte quajtur “Mare Nostrum” qe perkthehet fjale per fjale Deti Jon!!!)

216. Is= O.E. is, from Gmc. stem *es- (cf. O.H.G., Ger., Goth. ist, O.N. es, er), from PIE *es-ti- (eshte A-asht-Eshte-ish) (cf. Skt. Asti (asht), Gk. Esti (eshte), L. est (eshte), Lith. Esti (eshte), O.C.S. jesti(eshte)), from base *es- "to be." O.E. lost the final -t-. See be.

217. Janus=ancient Italic deity, guardian god of portals, patron of beginnings and endings, c.1500, from L. Janus, lit. "gate, arched passageway," perhaps from PIE base *ei- "to go" (Eja)(cf. Skt. yanah "path," O.C.S. jado "to travel"). He is shown as having two faces, one in front the other in back. His temple in Rome was closed only in times of peace.

219. Jealous= early 13c., from O.Fr. gelos (12c., Fr. jaloux), from L.L. zelosus, from zelus "zeal," from Gk. zelos, (Zili-zell:ziej nga inati) sometimes "jealousy," but more often in a good sense ("emulation, rivalry, zeal"). See zeal. Among the ways to express this in other tongues are Swed. svartsjuka, lit. "black-sick," from phrase bara svarta strumpor "wear black stockings," also "be jealous." Dan. skinsyg "jealous," lit. "skin-sick," is from skind "hide, skin" said to be explained by Swed. dialectal expression fa skinn "receive a refusal in courtship


220. Khedive=Turkish viceroy of Egypt, 1867, from Fr. khédive, from Turk. khidiv, from Pers. khidiw "prince," derivative of khuda "master, prince," from O.Pers. khvadata- "lord," from compound *khvat-data-, lit. "created from oneself," from khvat- (Vet-Vetja-Vatan) (from PIE *swe-tos "from oneself," (Vetja-Vetesosh- vecanerisht) ablative of base *s(w)e-; (Vet) see idiom) + data- "created.

221. Knee=O.E. cneo, cneow "knee," from P.Gmc. *knewan (cf. O.N. kne, O.Fris. kni, M.Du. cnie, O.H.G. kniu, Goth. kniu), from PIE base *g(e)neu- (gjuni) (cf. Skt. janu, Avestan znum, Hittite genu "knee;" Gk. gony (gjuni)"knee," gonia "corner, angle;" L. genu "knee"). The verb meaning "to strike with the knee" is first recorded 1896.

222. Know= O.E. cnawan (class VII strong verb; past tense cneow, pp. cnawen), from P.Gmc. *knoeanan (cf. O.H.G. bi-chnaan, ir-chnaan "to know"), from PIE base *gno- "to know" ( Njoh- Njohuri-te njohesh) (cf. O.Pers. xšnasatiy "he shall know;" O.C.S. znati, Rus. znat "to know;" L. gnoscere; (njoh) Gk. *gno-, as in gignoskein; (Njohesh) Skt. jna- "know"). Once widespread in Germanic, this form is now retained only in English, where however it has widespread application, covering meanings that require two or more verbs in other languages (e.g. Ger. wissen, kennen, erkennen and in part können; Fr. connaītre, savoir; L. novisse, cognoscere; O.C.S. znaja, vemi.

223. Lace=early 13c., from O.Fr. las "a net, noose, string" (Fr. lacs), from V.L. *lacium, from L. laqueum (nom. laqueus) (Laku)"noose, snare" (It. laccio, Sp. lazo), a trapping and hunting term, probably from Italic base *laq- "to ensnare" (Lak-I lakuar-lekund-perkulet, me kuptimin figurative “karakter I lekundur” qe eshte elastik qe lakon)(cf. L. lacere "to entice"). The "ornamental net pattern" meaning is first recorded 1550s. Sense of "cord for tying" remains in shoelace. To lace coffee, etc., with a dash of liquor (1670s) was originally used of sugar, and comes via the notion of "to ornament or trim." Related: Laced. Laced mutton was "an old word for a whore" [Johnson]. As an adjective, lace-curtain "middle class" (or lower-class with middle-class pretensions) usually is used in reference to Irish-Americans.

224. Lacerate=1590s, from L. laceratus, pp. of lacerare "tear to pieces, mangle," from lacer "torn, mangled," from PIE base *leq- "to rend" (Lekur)(cf. Gk. lakis "tatter, rag," lakizein "to tear to pieces;" Rus. lochma "rag, tatter, scrap;" Albanian lakur "naked"). Related: Lacerated; lacerating.

225. Lagoon=1610s, from Fr. lagune, from It. laguna (Lagur) "pond, lake," from L. lacuna "pond, hole," from lacus (I lakuar-me kuptimin qe nuk eshte rrafsh, gropa e ka lakuar) "pond" (see lake). Originally in reference to the region of Venice; applied 1769 to the lake-like stretch of water enclosed in a South Seas atoll.

226. Lake(1)= body of water," c.1200, from O.Fr. lack, from L. lacus "pond, lake," also "basin, tank," related to lacuna "hole, pit," from PIE *lak- (lag-legen) (cf. Gk. lakkos "pit, tank, pond," O.C.S. loky "pool, puddle, cistern," O.Ir. loch "lake, pond"). The common notion is "basin." There was a Germanic form of the word, which yielded cognate O.N. lögr "sea flood, water," O.E. lacu "stream," lagu (lag-lagur) "sea flood, water," leccan "to moisten" (see leak). The N.Amer. Great Lakes so called from 1660.

227. Lambent=1640s, from figurative use of L. lambentem (nom. lambens), prp. of lambere "to lick," from PIE base *lab-(llap-lepij) (cf. Gk. laptein "to sip, lick," O.E. lapian "to lick, lap up, suck.

228. Languid= 1590s, from L. languidus "faint, listless," from languere (lang/leng: me kuptimin figurative; I leshuar, pa karakter) "be weak or faint," from PIE base *(s)leg- "to be slack"(leng-lengim-Langaraq: i Lenguar)) (see lax). Related: Languidly.

229. Lap(n)= O.E. lęppa "skirt or flap of a garment," (Llapa eveshit, llapa/gjuha)from P.Gmc. *lapp- (cf. M.Du. lappe, O.H.G. lappa, Ger. Lappen "rag, shred," O.N. leppr "patch, rag"), from PIE base *leb- "be loose, hang down." In 17c. the word was a euphemism for "female pudenda." Sense of "lower part of a shirt" led to that of "upper legs of seated person" (late 13c.). Lap dance first recorded 1993.

230. Large= late 12c., "bountiful," from O.Fr. large "broad, wide," from L. largus "abundant, copious, plentiful, liberal," of unknown origin. (Larg-distanc qe perfshine nje hapesire te madhe:me sencin qe merr permasa te medha: largpames) Main modern meaning "extensive, big" emerged c.1300. An older sense of "liberated, free" is preserved in at large (late 14c.). Adj. phrase larger-than-life first attested 1937 (bigger than life is from 1640s.

231. Last= "endure," (I LASHT-me kuptimin e qe ka mbijetuar-Duruar) from O.E. lęstan "to continue, endure," earlier "accomplish, carry out," lit. "to follow a track," from P.Gmc. *laistijanan (cf. Goth. laistjan "to follow," O.Fris. lasta "to fulfill, to pay (duties)," Ger. leisten "to perform, achieve, afford"). Related to last (n.), not to last (adj

232. Late(adj)= O.E. lęt "occurring after the customary or expected time," originally "slow, sluggish," from P.Gmc. *latas (cf. O.N. latr "sluggish, lazy," M.Du., O.S. lat, Ger. laß (lodh)"idle, weary," Goth. lats "weary, sluggish, lazy," latjan "to hinder"), from PIE base *lad- "slow, weary" (lodhur) (cf. L. lassus (I leshuar, eshte I leshuar I lodhur, , shiko fjalen languid) "faint, weary, languid, exhausted," Gk. ledein "to be weary"). The sense of "deceased" (as in the late Mrs. Smith) is from late 15c., from an adv. sense of "recently." Of women's menstrual periods, attested colloquially from 1962. Related: Lately; lateness.

233. Latex=1660s, "body fluid," from L. latex (gen. laticis) "liquid, fluid," probably from Gk. latax "dregs," from PIE base *lat- "wet" (me la--lluc-Lagur) (cf. M.Ir. laith "beer," Welsh llaid (lluc) "mud, mire," Lith. latakas "pool, puddle," O.N. ležja "filth"). Used 1835 to mean "milky liquid from plants." Meaning "water-dispersed polymer particles" (used in rubber goods, paints, etc.) is from 1937.

234. Lather= O.E. laužr "foam, washing soda," from P.Gmc. *laužran (cf. O.N. laušr "washing soap, foam"), from PIE *loutrom (Lau-la-trupin{ “Lather”=do te thote te pastrosh, la trupin me sapun apo ledhaton me sfungjer.sfungjer)) (cf. Gaul. lautron, O.Ir. loathar "bathing tub," Gk. louein (Lau) "to bathe," L. lavere "to wash"), which is from base *lou- "to wash" + instrumentative suffix *-tro-. Meaning "state of agitation" (such as induces sweating) is from 1839. The verb is from O.E. lažran, from P.Gmc. *laužrjan

235. Laundry=1530s, from O.Fr. lavanderie, from L. lavandaria, pl. of lavandarium "things to be washed," (lau-me La ndresat) from lavare "to wash" (see lave). Laundry list in figurative sense is from 1958.

236. Lave=O.E. gelafian "wash by pouring, pour (water)," possibly an early English or West Germanic borrowing of L. lavare "to wash," or its O.Fr. descendant, laver. Latin lavare is from PIE *lou- "to wash" (Lau) (cf. L. luere "to wash," Gk. louein "to wash, bathe," O.Ir. loathar "basin," Bret. laouer "trough," O.E. leažor "lather”.

237. League="alliance," mid-15c., ligg, from M.Fr. ligue "confederacy, league," from It. lega, (Lidh) from legare "to tie, to bind," from L. ligare (Lidh-Lagje)"to bind" (see ligament). Originally among nations, subsequently extended to political associations (1846) and sports associations (1879). League of Nations first attested 1917 (created 1919

238. Lecture=late 14c., "action of reading, that which is read," from M.L. lectura "a reading, lecture," from L. lectus, pp. of legere "to read," originally "to gather, collect, pick out, choose" (cf. election), from PIE *leg- "to pick together, gather, collect" (Bledh-Lidh- {ne shqipe “g” shume here esht dryshuar ne “Dh” kjo eshte karakteristike e gjuhes “Satem” te lindjes qe futet edhe shqipja) (cf. Gk. legein (Ligjeron ( me kuptimin te lidh fjalet-“lidheron”) "to say, tell, speak, declare," originally, in Homer, "to pick out, select, collect, enumerate;" lexis "speech, diction;" logos (Lidhje-lidh fjalet-te japesh llogari) "word, speech, thought, account;" L. lignum Mb-li/edhun-”) "wood, firewood," lit. “that which is gathered”). To read is to "pick out words." (me lexu nuk mendoj se eshte nje akt qe te zgjedhesh fjalet por me teper ti lidhes ato me njera tjetren dhe pastaj del fjalija dhe domethenia). Meaning "action of reading (a lesson) aloud" is from 1520s. That of "a discourse on a given subject before an audience for purposes of instruction" is from 1530s. The verb is attested from 1580s. Related: Lectured; lecturer; lecturing.

239. Leek= O.E. lęc (Mercian), leac (W.Saxon) "leek, onion, garlic," from P.Gmc. *lauka-(Laker) (cf. O.N. laukr (Laker)"leek, garlic," Dan. lųg, Swed. lök "onion," Du. look "leek, garlic," O.H.G. louh, Ger. lauch (Laker- preshi, qepa, hurdha hyn ne familjen e lakres) "leek"). No known cognates; Finnish laukka, O.C.S. luku are borrowed from Gmc.

240. Lenient=1650s, "relaxing, soothing," from M.Fr. lenient, from L. lenientem (nom. leniens), prp. of lenire "to soften, alleviate, mitigate, allay, calm," from lenis "mild, gentle, calm," probably from PIE base *le(i)- "to leave, yield" (lere-leje, me kuptimin leje/lere te kaloj) (cf. Lith. lenas "quiet, tranquil, tame, slow," O.C.S. lena "lazy," L. lassus "faint, weary," O.E. lęt "sluggish, slow," lętan "to leave behind"). Sense of "mild, merciful" (of persons) first recorded 1787. In earlier use was lenitive, attested from 1540s of medicines, 1610s of persons.

241. Let= O.E. lętan "to allow, let go, bequeath, leave," also "to rent" (class VII strong verb; past tense let, pp. lęten), from P.Gmc. *lętan (cf. O.S. latan, O.Fris. leta, Du. laten, Ger. lassen, Goth. letan "to leave, let"), from PIE *le(i)d- "to leave behind, leave, yield" (Ler-Lesho-clidh-lind-me kuptimin qe shkeputet nuke eshte me e lidhur) (cf. L. lassus (mbani ment kete fjal kur te shikoni fjalen {ALAS})"faint, weary," Lith. leisti "to let, to let loose"). The primary sense appears to be "to let go through weariness, to neglect." Obsolete let (n.) "hindrance" is from O.E. lettan "hinder, delay," from P.Gmc. *latjanan, related to Mod.Eng. late. Let on "reveal, divulge" is from 1630s; let up "cease, stop" is from 1787.

242. Lethe= 1560s, river of Hades, whose water when drunk caused forgetfulness of the past, from Gk. lethe, (lajthit) lit. "forgetfulness, oblivion," related to lethargos "forgetful," lathre "secretly, by stealth," lathrios "stealthy," lanthanein "to be hidden." Cognate with L. latere "to be hidden" (see latent)

243. Lever=c.1300, from O.Fr. levier "a lifter, a lever," agent noun from lever "to raise," from L. levare "to raise," from (levis leviz, me kuptimin qe eshte I leht)"light" in weight, from PIE base *le(n)gwh- "light, easy, agile, nimble" (Leht-Leng-ushqim I leht))(cf. Skt. laghuh "quick, small;" Gk. elakhys "small," elaphros "light;" O.C.S. liguku, Lith. lengvas "light;" O.Ir. laigiu "smaller, worse;" Goth. Leihts (leht) , O.E. leoht (leht)"light" (adj).

244. Leverage=1724, "action of a lever," from lever + -age. Meaning "power or force of a lever" (Leva-ngje qe ben levizjen e trupave te medhenj me kollaj-pra fjala e rendesishme ketu eshte Lev-Levizje) is from 1830s; figurative sense from 1858. The noun in the financial sense is attested by 1937, Amer.Eng.; the verb by 1957. Related: Leveraged; leverages; leveraging.

245. Liberate=1620s, from L. liberatus, ( I Liruar)pp. of liberare "set free," from liber (Liri-I lire) "free" (see liberal). Meaning "to free an occupied territory from the enemy" (often used ironically) is from 1944.

246. Lie(v.1)= "speak falsely," O.E. legan, ligan, earlier leogan (class II strong verb; past tense leag, pp. logen), from P.Gmc. *leugan)(cf. O.N. ljuga, Dan. lyve, O.Fris. liaga, Ger. lügen, Goth. liugan), from PIE base *leugh- "to tell a lie (Lig-Ligavec).

247. Lingual= 1640s, from M.L. lingualis "of the tongue," from L. lingua (gjuhe) "tongue," also "speech, language," from Old L. dingua, from PIE *dnghwa- (Gjuha-goja) (cf. O.E. tunge, Goth. tuggo "tongue," see tongue). Altered by assoc. with lingere "to lick”.

248. Logos= 1580s, "second person of the Christian Trinity," from Gk. logos "word, speech, discourse," also "reason," from PIE base *leg- "to collect" (Lidh- Mbledh-logari, me kuptimin qe te, perdore llogjiken, te lidhesh mendimet dhe jep ose ben llogari)(with derivatives meaning "to speak," on notion of "to pick out words;" see lecture); used by Neo-Platonists in various metaphysical and theological senses and picked up by N.T. writers. Other English formations from logos include logolatry "worship of words, unreasonable regard for words or verbal truth" (1810 in Coleridge); logomachy "fighting about words" (1560s); logomania (1870); logophobia (1923).

249. Logarithm= 1610s, Mod.L. logarithmus, coined by Scottish mathematician John Napier (1550-1617), lit. "ratio-number," from Gk. logos "proportion, ratio, word"(prap hasim te njejten fjale qe merr kuptime krejt te ndryshme nga ato qe pam me perpara. Ne shqipe kjo fjal prap I qendron thelbit te saj. Qe eshte Lidhje e mendimeve, Logjika-Llogarija) (see logos) + arithmos "number" (see arithmetic). Related: Logarithmic

250. Machine=1540s, "structure of any kind," from M.Fr. machine "device, contrivance," from L. machina "machine, engine, fabric, frame, device, trick" (cf. Sp. maquina, It. macchina), from Gk. makhana, Doric variant of mekhane "device, means," related to mekhos "means, expedient, contrivance," from PIE *maghana- "that which enables," from base *magh- "to be able, have power" (Mujt-mundet-mundesi) (cf. O.C.S. mogo "be able," O.E. męg "I can;" see might). Main modern sense of "device made of moving parts for applying mechanical power" (1670s) probably grew out of mid-17c. senses of "apparatus, appliance" and "military siege-tower." ( ne nje shqipe vjeter eshte perdorur fjala Moker, e cila ishte nje lloj Makinerie/Vegel e cila erdoreshte per bluarje)
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251. Major(n)= military rank, 1640s, from Fr. major, short for sergent-major, originally a higher rank than at present, from M.L. major "chief officer, magnate, superior person," from L. major "an elder, adult," (Major-me kuptimin me I larti me I madhi, qe qendron ne Maj) noun use of the adjective (see major (adj)

252. Mallet=late 14c., from O.Fr. maillet "small wooden hammer," dim. of mail, from L. malleus "hammer," from PIE *mele- "to grind, crush" (Mulli-Miell) (cf. Hittite mallanzi "they grind;" Arm. malem "I crush, bruise;" Gk. malakos "soft," mylos (Mulli) "millstone;" L. molere "to grind;" O.E. melu "meal;" Alb. miel "meal, flour;" O.C.S. meljo, Lith. malu "to grind;" O.C.S. mlatu, Rus. molotu "hammer".

253. Master(n)= O.E. męgester "one having control or authority," from L. magister (Mosh—Motcem-, moshuar: dikush qe ushtron profesjonin per shume kohe) "chief, head, director, teacher" (cf. O.Fr. maistre, Fr. maītre, It. maestro, Ger. Meister), influenced in M.E. by O.Fr. maistre, from L. magister, contrastive adj. from magis (adv.) "more," itself a comp. of magnus "great." Meaning "original of a recording" is from 1904. In academic senses (from M.L. magister) it is attested from late 14c., originally a degree conveying authority to teach in the universities. The verb is attested from early 13c. Related: Mastered.

254. Me= O.E. me (dat.), me, mec (acc.; oblique cases of I), from P.Gmc. *meke (acc.), *mes (dat.), cf. O.N., Goth. mik, O.H.G. mih, Ger. mich; from PIE base *me-, *eme-, (mua-imja/emja) the bare stem of the pronoun (cf. Skt., Avestan mam, Gk. Eme(emja) , L. me(mua), O.Ir. me, Welsh mi "me"). Erroneous or vulgar use for nom. (e.g. it is me) attested from c.1500. Dative preserved in obsolete meseems, methinks.

255. Memory= mid-13c., from Anglo-Fr. memorie, from L. memoria, from memor "mindful, remembering," from PIE base *men-/*mon- "think" (ment-mendoj-memoria=me marr ne mend- me kujtu- me kuptimin figurative te perkujtosh dicka me ane te memories) (see mind (n.)). Computer sense is from 1946

256. Mental= early 15c., from M.Fr. mental, from L.L. mentalis "of the mind," from L. mens (gen. mentis) (Ment-Mendja)"mind," from PIE base *men- "to think" (Ment-mendja-mat) (cf. Skt. matih "thought, mind," Goth. gamunds, O.E. gemynd "memory, remembrance," Mod.Eng. mind (n.)). Meaning "crazy, deranged" is from 1927

257. Method= 1540s, from M.Fr. methode, from L. methodus "way of teaching or going," from Gk. methodus "scientific inquiry, method of inquiry," originally "pursuit, following after," from meta- "after" (prap hasim fjalen Meta qe siduket I jepen shume kuptime por ne thelb , prap I pershatet kuptimit metej, matan) (see meta-) + hodos (Udhe, nje Udhezim nga kjo mund te vi edhe fjala HEDH/HUDH dhe Hodhe/Hudh me kuptimin qe te Hedhesh mendimet ne fletore qe te perdoret si mjet tregues dhe edukative sic eshte karakteristika e Metodes. Mund ti pershtatet fjala Met(miet)+Hode(udhe)=Mjetudhezimi).

258. Mickle= dial. survival of O.E. micel, mycel "great, big, many," from P.Gmc. *mekilaz (cf. O.S. mikil, O.N. mikill, O.H.G. mihhil, Goth. mikils), from PIE base *meg(h)- "great, large" (Madhe) (cf. Arm. mets "great;" Skt. mahat- (Madhe)"great, mazah- (Mazia/madhia) "greatness;" Avestan mazant- "great;" Hitt. mekkish "great, large;" Gk. megas "great, large;" L. magnus "great, large, much, abundant," major (madhor/major) "greater;" M.Ir. mag, maignech "great, large;" M.Welsh meith "long, great"). Its main modern form is much.

259. Might(n)= .E. miht, (mujt-mund-mundesi-mundje, te gjitha vine nga fjala Madh-madheshtor) earlier męht, from P.Gmc. *makhtuz (mujt-mund) (cf. O.N. mattr, O.Fris., M.Du. macht, Ger. Macht, Goth. mahts), from PIE base *mag- "be able, have power" (Madh-madheshtor-Mundesi-Mujt/mund, e mundshme. (see may (v.)

260. Mind= O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention," P.Gmc. *ga-menthijan (cf. Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" O.N. minni "mind;" Ger. minne, originally "memory, loving memory"), from PIE base *men- "think, remember, have one's mind aroused" (Menoj-Mend-mendime-memorie) (cf. Skt. matih "thought," munih "sage, seer;" Gk. memona "I yearn," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet, seer;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea," O.C.S. mineti "to believe, think," Rus. pamjat "memory").

261. Minor=early 13c., from L. minor "lesser, smaller, junior," formed as a masc./fem. of minus on the mistaken assumption that minus was a neut. comparative (see minus), from PIE base *min- "small" ( imet-mitur-miu-imcak: ne gegnishte Min do te thote Miu) (cf. L. minuere, Gk. minythein, O.E. minsian "to diminish," Skt. miyate "diminishes, declines," Rus. men'she "less").

262. Mir=space station, from Rus., lit. "peace, world,"??? (Mir-Miraton-Mrekulli) also "village, community," from O.C.S. miru (Mir) "peace," from Proto-Slavic *miru (Mir) "commune, joy, peace" ("possibly borrowed from Iranian" -Watkins), from PIE base *mei- "to bind" (see mitre). O.C.S. miru (Mir)was "used in Christian terminology as a collective 'community of peace' " [Buck], translating Gk. kosmos. Hence, "the known world, mankind.


264. Misconception=1660s, from mis- (1) + conception. Related: Misconceptions (moskonceptim-"moskapja": me kuptimin qe nuk arrin ta kapi, keqkupton)

265. Mission=1590s, originally of Jesuits sending members abroad, (ndoshta me kuptimin qe te “te mesojn te tjeret te japin mesim te tjereve me doctrinat e tyre, sic eshe fjala emission qe ka per synim te paraqesi nje pikpamje apo message, qe ne thelb eshte nje lloj mesimi) from L. missionem (nom. missio) ( Nis-me cu, me Nisemi) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," oldest form probably *smittere, of unknown origin. Diplomatic sense of "body of persons sent to a foreign land on commercial or political business" (ndoshta nga fjala Meson-Mision-marrveshje) is from 1620s.

266. Mother= O.E. modor, from P.Gmc. *mothęr (cf. O.S. modar, Dan. moder, Du. moeder, Ger. Mutter), from PIE *mater- (Miter-Moter: ajo qe mbart=mater) (cf. L. mater, O.Ir. mathir, Lith. mote, Skt. matar-, Gk. meter, O.C.S. mati). Spelling with -th- dates from early 16c., though that pronunciation is probably older. The verb meaning "to take care of" is first recorded 1863. Mother nature first attested c.1600; mother earth is from 1580s. Mother tongue "one's native language" first attested late 14c.

267. Museum= 1610s, "the university building in Alexandria," from L. museum "library, study," from Gk. mouseion ( Meson-me mesue)(or shrine of the Muses," from Mousa "Muse" (see muse (n.)). Earliest use in reference to English institutions was of libraries (e.g. the British Museum); sense of "building to display objects" first recorded 1680s.

268. Name= O.E. nama, from P.Gmc. *namon (cf. O.Fris. nama, O.H.G. namo, Ger. Name, Du. naam, O.N. nafn, Goth. namo "name"), from PIE *nomn- (Emni-Emer) (cf. Skt. nama, Avestan nama, Gk. onoma, onyma, L. nomen, O.C.S. ime, gen. imene, Rus. imya, O.Ir. ainm, O.Welsh anu). Meaning "one's reputation" is from c.1300. As a modifier meaning "well-known," first attested 1938. The verb is from O.E. namian. Related: Named; naming. Name-calling is from 1853; name-dropper first recorded 1947. The name of the game "the essential thing or quality" is from 1966; to have one's name in lights "be a famous performer" is from 1929

269. Natatorium= 1890, New Englandish word for "swimming pool," from L. natator (Notar) "swimmer" (from nare "to swim") + -ium, neut. suffix. Latin nare is from PIE *sna- "to swim, to flow" (Not-Notim) (cf. Arm. nay "wet, liquid;" Gk. notios "damp, moist," nao "I flow;" Skt. snati "bathes;" M.Ir. snaim "I swim;" and probably also Gk. nesos "island," from *na-sos, lit. "that which swims.

270. Nature=c.1300, "essential qualities, innate disposition," also "creative power in the material world," from O.Fr. nature, from L. natura "course of things, natural character, the universe," lit. "birth," from natus "born," pp. of nasci "to be born," from PIE *gene- "to give birth, beget" (Me Dhan=G(Dh)en/Jep: Gjeneron-gjenerat-Qenie: perfundimisht me dhan jet.)(see genus). Original sense is in human nature. Meaning "inherent, dominating power or impulse" of a person or thing is from late 14c. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since 1874.

271. Negro="member of a black-skinned race of Africa," 1550s, from Sp. or Port. negro "black," from L. nigrum (nom. Niger (nxier-nxir, qe mund te vij nga fjal zjarr,nxihet nga flaket)) "black," of unknown origin (perhaps from PIE *nekw-t- "night," (nat-kot-kuturrum-)cf. Watkins). Use with a capital N- became general early 20c. (e.g. 1930 in "New York Times" stylebook) in reference to U.S. citizens of African descent, but because of its perceived association with white-imposed attitudes and roles the word was ousted late 1960s in this sense by Black (q.v

272. Nemesis= 1570s, "Greek goddess of vengeance," from nemesis "just indignation, jealousy, vengeance," lit. "distribution," related to nemein "distribute, allot, apportion one's due," from PIE base *nem- "to divide, distribute, allot, to take" (Nema) (cf. O.E., Goth. niman "to take," Ger. nehmen; (Nehma-me marr) see nimble). With a lower-case -n-, in the sense of "retributive justice," attested from 1590s. General sense of "anything by which it seems one must be defeated" is 20c.

273. Nepenthe= 1570s, nepenthes, from Gk. nepenthes, from ne- (Nuk) "no, not" (see un-) + penthos (Pendohesh)"grief" (related to pathos) (Pendo). A drug of Egypt mentioned in the "Odyssey" as capable of banishing grief or trouble from the mind (domethen qe ilaci ndihmonte te mos mendohesh: Nuk-pendohesh). The -s is a proper part of the word, but was likely mistaken in English as a plural affix and dropped.

274. Night= O.E. niht (W.Saxon neaht, Anglian nęht, neht-( Nehtet), the vowel indicating that the modern word derives from oblique cases (gen. nihte, dat. niht), from P.Gmc. *nakht- (cf. O.H.G. naht, O.Fris., Du., Ger. nacht, O.N. natt, Goth. nahts), from PIE *nok(w)t- (Nat-“Nuk-bej” me kuptimin negative te erresires, Nate kundra Dites-drites-dituris)(cf. Gk. nuks "a night," L. nox, O.Ir. nochd, Skt. naktam "at night," Lith. naktis "night," O.C.S. nosti, Rus. noch', Welsh henoid "tonight"). For spelling with -gh- see fight.

275. Observe=late 14c., "to hold to" (a manner of life or course of conduct), from O.Fr. observer, from L. observare "watch over, look to, attend to, guard," from ob (shikoni sa kuptime I jepen fjales Ob, shifeni Ob-) "over" (see ob-) + servare "to watch, keep safe," from PIE base *ser- "to protect." (sherbej) Meaning "to attend to in practice, to keep, follow" is attested from late 14c. Sense of "watch, perceive, notice" is 1560s, via notion of "see and note omens." Meaning "to say by way of remark" is from c.1600. Related: Observed; observing

276. Ocean=late 13c., from O.Fr. occean (12c.), from L. oceanus, from Gk. okeanos, (ujane-uji-anes-anash-perreth tokes) the great river or sea surrounding the disk of the Earth (as opposed to the Mediterranean), ( Fjala Ujane-eshte perdorur ne shqipen) of unknown origin. Personified as Oceanus, (Ujane) son of Uranus and Gaia (Dorian ge/ga: duhet mbajtur mend shnderimi i g ne dh-del Dheu=Gaia eshte mbreteresha e Tokes=Dheu) and husband of Tethys (mbreteresha e Detit: Tethys ndoshta do te thote pjese e tokes qe eshte prer apo thyer nga uji, si nje pjese uji shume me e vogel se oqeani). In early times, when the only known land masses were Eurasia and Africa, the ocean was an endless river that flowed around them.

277. Odyssey= c.1600, "Odyssey," from L. Odyssea, from Gk. Odysseia, (Udhes-Udhe(sia)) name of the Homeric epic poem of ancient Greece, relating the 10-year wanderings of Odysseus (L. Ulysses), king of Ithaca, after the Trojan War. Figurative sense of "long, adventurous journey” (Udhe-tim)

278. Offer= O.E. ofrian, from L. offerre "to present, bestow, bring before" (in L.L. "to present in worship"), from ob "to" + ferre "to bring, to carry" (Ofert-afer-te afroj-te ofroj) (see infer). Non-religious sense reinforced by O.Fr. offrir "to offer," from L. offerre. The noun is first recorded early 15c., from O.Fr. offre (12c.), verbal noun from offrir. The native noun formation is offering (O.E. offrung), verbal noun from offrian.

279. Onion= early 12c., from Anglo-Fr. union, from O.Fr. oignon (formerly also oingnon), from L. unionem (nom. unio), colloquial rustic Roman for "a kind of onion," also "pearl," lit. "one, unity;" sense connection is the successive layers of an onion, in contrast with garlic or cloves. O.E. had ynne (in ynne-leac), from the same Latin source, which also produced Ir. inniun, Welsh wynwyn and similar words in Germanic. In Dutch, the ending in -n was mistaken for a plural inflection and new sing. ui formed. The usual I.E. name is represented by Gk. kromion, Ir. crem, Welsh craf, O.E. hramsa, Lith. kremuse. The usual Latin word was cepa, a loan from an unknown language; ??? (Qepa) cf. O.Fr. cive, O.E. cipe, and, via L.L. dim. cepulla, It. cipolla, Sp. cebolla, Pol. cebula.

280. Orphan=c.1300, from L.L. orphanus "parentless child" (cf. O.Fr. orfeno, It. orfano), from Gk. orphanos (varfen-varfnia-vorfenia, mund te vij nga koncepti I varjes, I varur tek diku, qe nuk je I zoti I vetes)"orphaned," lit. "deprived," from orphos "bereft," from PIE *orbho- "bereft of father," also "deprived of free status," from base *orbh- "to change allegiance, to pass from one status to another" (cf. Hittite harb- "change allegiance," L. orbus "bereft," Skt. arbhah "weak, child," Arm. orb "orphan," O.Ir. orbe "heir," O.C.S. rabu "slave," rabota "servitude" (cf. robot), Goth. arbja, Ger. erbe, O.E. ierfa "heir," O.H.G. arabeit, Ger. Arbeit "work," O.Fris. arbed, O.E. earfoš "hardship, suffering, trouble"). The verb is attested from 1814. Related: Orphaned; orphaning

281. Osseous= bony," 1707, from M.L. ossous, from L. osseus "bony," from os (gen. ossis) "bone," from PIE *os- (ash/t-eshtra) (cf. Skt. asthi, Hittite hashtai-, Gk. osteon "bone," Gk. ostrakon "oyster shell," Avestan ascu- "shinbone," Welsh asgwrn, Armenian oskr, Albanian asht "bone

282. Other=O.E. ožer "the second, one of the two, other," from P.Gmc. *antharaz (cf. O.S. athar, O.N. annarr, Ger. ander, Goth. anžar "other"), from PIE *an-tero-, (atje-ata-tjeret, qe vjen nga Ti, do me then ti, tjeter, jo une imja) variant of *al-tero- "the other of two" (cf. Lith. antras, Skt. Antarah (tjera) "other, foreign," L. alter (tjeter-tjeter. Pra dhe fjala alternative na del shqipe sepse ka kete fjal ne thelb, tjer tjetra, rruge tjeter, qe vjen nga di/dy/ti=tjeter), from base *al- "beyond" + adj. comp. suffix *-tero-. Sense of "second" was detached from this word in English (which uses second, from Latin) and German (zweiter, from zwei "two") to avoid ambiguity. In Scandinavian, however, the second floor is still the "other" floor (cf. Swed. andra, Dan. anden). Phrase other world "world of idealism or fantasy, afterlife, spirit-land" is c.1200; hence otherworldliness (c.1834).

283. Ox=O.E. oxa (pl. oxan), from P.Gmc. *ukhson (cf. O.N. oxi, O.Fris. oxa, M.Du. osse, Ger. Ochse, Goth. auhsa), from PIE *uks-en- (ka-kau)"male animal," (cf. Welsh ych "ox," M.Ir. oss "stag," Skt. Uksa(ka-kau), Avestan uxshan- "ox, bull"), said to be from base *uks- "to sprinkle," related to *ugw- (uje-lagur-lageshtire)"wet, moist." The animal word, then, is lit. "besprinkler." Oxen is the only true survival in Mod.Eng. of the O.E. weak plural. Ox-bow "semicircular bend in a river" is first recorded 1797, Amer.Eng. (New England), in ref. to the shape of the piece of wood which forms the collar for an ox yoke (so called from 1368)

284. Pacific=1540s, "tending to make peace," from M.Fr. pacifique, from L. pacificus (Paqesor-oceani paqesor) "peaceful, peace-making," from pax (gen. pacis) "peace" + root of facere "to make" (see factitious). Meaning "peaceful, calm" is first recorded 1630s. Related: Pacifically

285. Palm(1)= flat of the hand," c.1300, from O.Fr. palme, from L. palma "palm of the hand," from PIE *pela- to spread out, flat" (pellamb) (cf. Gk. palame "open hand," (pllam= pellemb) O.Ir. lam, Welsh llaw O.E. folm, O.H.G. folma "hand," Skt. panih "hand, hoof"). To palm (something) off is from 1822; earlier simply to palm "impose (something) on (someone)" (1670s). Palm oil is earlier in the punning sense of "bribe" (1620s) than in the literal sense of "oil from the fruit of the W.African palm" (1705, from palm)

286. Paradox= 1530s, from L. paradoxum "paradox, statement seemingly absurd yet really true," from Gk. paradoxon, from neut. of adj. paradoxos "contrary to expectation, incredible," from para-(para-perpara ne ane te kundert) "contrary to" + doxa "opinion," from dokein (duket-duken)"to appear, seem, think" (see decent)

287. Parent=late 12c., from O.Fr. parent (11c.), from L. parentem (nom. parens) "father or mother, ancestor," noun use of prp. of parere "bring forth, give birth to, produce," from PIE base *per- "to bring forth" (I pari-te Paret: ata qe prine rrugen: Prirje-Pari-Parim-Prind- { eshte ai qe prin rrugen e femijve-edukator) (see pare). Began to replace native elder after c.1500. The verb is attested from 1660s. The verbal noun parenting is first recorded 1959 (earlier term had been parentcraft, 1930.

288. Patriot=1590s, "compatriot," from M.Fr. patriote (15c.), from L.L. patriota "fellow-countryman" (6c.), from Gk. patriotes "fellow countryman," from patrios "of one's fathers," patris "fatherland," from pater (gen. patros) (ate/eter) "father," with -otes, -suffix expressing state or condition. Meaning "loyal and disinterested supporter of one's country" is attested from c.1600, but became an ironic term of ridicule or abuse from mid-18c. in England, so that Johnson, who at first defined it as "one whose ruling passion is the love of his country," in his fourth edition added, "It is sometimes used for a factious disturber of the government.

289. Paucity=early 15c., from O.Fr. paucité (14c.), from L. paucitatem (nom. Paucitas(pakica)) "fewness, scarcity," from paucus "few, little," from PIE base *pau- "few, little" (pak-pakic)(cf. L. paullus "little," parvus "little, small," pauper "poor;" O.E. feawe "few," fola "young horse;" O.N. fylja "young female horse”.

290. Peace=mid-12c., "freedom from civil disorder," from Anglo-Norm. pes, from O.Fr. pais (11c., Mod.Fr. paix), from L. pacem (nom. pax) "treaty of peace, tranquility, absence of war" (cf. Prov. patz, Sp. paz, It. Pace(Qet- paqe-qetesi-i/e qete), from PIE *pak- "fasten," (Qep-Kep-{fillimisht ka qen Kep(qep) dhe shkep(shqep) ndoshta me kuptimn qe ti kapesh, qepesh dy gjera bashk. *Pak=lexohet Kap nga djathta ne te majten) related to pacisci "to covenant or agree" (see pact). Replaced O.E. friš, also sibb, which also meant "happiness." Modern spelling is 1500s, reflecting vowel shift. Sense in peace of mind is from c.1200. Used in various greetings from c.1300, from Biblical L. pax, Gk. eirene, which were used by translators to render Heb. shalom, properly "safety, welfare, prosperity." Sense of "quiet" is attested by 1300; meaning "absence or cessation of war or hostility" is attested from c.1300. As a type of hybrid tea rose (developed 1939 in France by Francois Meilland), so called from 1944. Native American peace pipe is first recorded 1760. Peacemaker is from mid-15c. Phrase peace with honor first recorded 1607 (in "Coriolanus"). The Peace Corps was set up March 1, 1962.

291. Pendant=c.1400, "loose, hanging part of anything," from Anglo-Fr. pendaunt "hanging" (c.1300), from O.Fr. pendant (13c.), noun use of prp. of pendre "to hang," from L. pendere "to hang," from PIE base *(s)pen(d)- "to pull, stretch" (shpend-) (see span (v.)). Meaning "dangling part of an earring" is attested from 1550s. Nautical sense of "tapering flag" is recorded from late 15c. "In this sense presumably a corruption of pennon" [OED

292. Period=early 15c., "course or extent of time," from M.L. periodus "recurring portion, cycle," from L. periodus "a complete sentence," also "cycle of the Greek games," from Gk. periodos "rounded sentence, cycle, circuit, period of time," lit. "going around," from peri- (perreth-rreth)"around" (see peri-) + hodos (udhe)"a going, way, journey" (see cede). Sense of "repeated cycle of events" led to that of "interval of time." Meaning "dot marking end of a sentence" first recorded c.1600, from similar use in M.L. Sense of "menstruation" dates from 1822. Educational sense of "portion of time set apart for a lesson" is from 1876. Sporting sense attested from 1898.

293. Petition=early 14c., "a supplication or prayer, especially to a deity," from O.Fr. peticiun (12c.), from L. petitionem (nom. petitio) (pyetje-pyetsor)"a request, solicitation," noun of action from petere "to require, seek, go forward," also "to rush at, attack," ult. from PIE base *pet-/*pte- "to rush, to fly" (Pet-shpejt-shpejto) (cf. Skt. patram "wing, feather, leaf," patara- "flying, fleeting;" Hittite pittar "wing;" Gk. piptein "to fall," potamos "rushing water," pteryx "wing;" O.E. fešer "feather;" L. penna "feather, wing;" O.C.S. pero "feather;" O.Welsh eterin "bird"). Meaning "formal written request to a superior (earthly)" is attested from early 15c. The verb is c.1600, from the noun

294. Phantasm=early 13c., fantesme, from O.Fr. fantasme, from L. phantasma "an apparition, specter," from Gk. phantasma "image, phantom," from phantazein "to make visible, display," from stem of phainein (me Pa: Pane>veta e trete shumes)"to show," from PIE base *bha- "to shine" (Bardh-zbardhi drita:. Thuhet fjalet fantasem dhe fantazi shqipja I ka huazuar nga latinishtja. Ka mundesi. Ne shqipen e sotme fjalet Fantasem dhe Fantasi nuk kane kuptim konkret, d.m.th nuk zberthehen dote. Por po te hyme ne thellesi mund te shikojm rrenjet e verteta te kyter fjaleve. Ne greqishten e vjeter jane shkruajtur Phantazem dhe Phantasia. Keshtu jane shkruajtur edhe ne latinishten deri diku. Me vone t “ph” u ndryshua ne germen “F” qe shqiptohet “F” . Ne greqishten e vjeter shiptoheshte “Ph-e”: p.sh. pamje-panorama-dhe ketu eshte kjert “sekreti” I prejardhjes se fjaleve, dhe kjo verteton qe jane fjale shqipe ashtu si shume fjale te tjera qe jane Rrimarre nga shqipja si te huaja: ne perfundim fjalet Phantasem dhe Phantazi kane si rrenje fjalen “Me Pa” fantazem “eshte” ajo qe “shikohet”, nje hije te zbehte(zbardhur). Fantazia eshte aftesia e njeriut per te perfytyruar (per te pare) krijuar idete, "gjerat" ne mendje)(cf. Skt. bhati "shines, glitters," O.Ir. ban "white, light, ray of light"). Spelling conformed to Latin from 16c.

295. Piece=early 13c., "fixed amount, measure, portion," (pjese: jo e plote, dicka e pjesetuar nje pakice-cope) from O.Fr. piece (11c.), from V.L. *pettia, probably from Gaulish (cf. Welsh peth "thing," Breton pez "piece"), perhaps from an O.Celt. base *pett-. ??? Related: Pieces. Sense of "portable firearm" first recorded 1580s; that of "chessman" is from 1560s. Meaning "person regarded as a sex object" is first recorded 1785 (cf. piece of ass, human beings colloquially called piece of flesh from 1590s; cf. also L. scortum "bimbo, anyone available for a price," lit. "skin," dim. scortillum "bimbette"). Meaning "a portion of a distance" is from 1610s; that of "literary composition" dates from 1530s. The verb meaning "to mend by adding pieces" is recorded from late 14c.; sense of "to join, unite, put together" is from late 15c. Related: Pieced; piecing. Piece of my mind is from 1570s. Piece of work "remarkable person" echoes Hamlet. Piece of eight is the old name for the Spanish dollar (c.1600) of the value of 8 reals.

296. Plenty=early 13c., from O.Fr. plentet (12c., Mod.Fr. dial. plenté), from L. plenitatem (nom. plenitas) "fullness," from plenus (plot)"complete, full" (see plenary). The colloquial adv. meaning "very much" is first attested 1842.

297. Pogrom= 1882, from Yiddish pogrom, from Rus. pogromu "devastation, destruction," from po-(po=pozitivisht, dicka qe nuk pengohet) "by, through" + gromu (gjemon)"thunder, roar," (Thjesth shpjegohet Po Gjemon) from PIE imitative base *ghrem- (see grim).

298. Post-=prefix meaning "after," from (Posht-Pastaj-Pas-pasdite-Pasoj)L. post "behind, after, afterward," from *pos-ti (cf. Arcadian pos, Doric poti "toward, to, near, close by;" O.C.S. po "behind, after," pozdu "late;" Lith. pas "at, by"), from PIE *po- (Po-Posht-posi-{po-apo)(cf. Gk. apo "from," L. ab "away from.

299. Premeditate= pre (para) + meditate= 1580s, “to ponder,” from L. meditat-, pp. stem of meditari (see meditation). Related: Meditated; meditating (paramendimaramenduar: “med” vjen nga matja: nga ment-mendja: dhe kur thua mendoj pak a shume eshte nje far matjeje: ashtu sic eshte dhe matura, nje njeri qe flet me matje: do me thene ne thelb mend-mendoj-mendja nenkupton matje)

300. Private(adj)= late 14c., from L. privatus "set apart, belonging to oneself" (not to the state), used in contrast to publicus, communis; originally pp. stem of privare "to separate, deprive," from privus "one's own, individual," (Per-Vete)from Old L. pri (para-i/e pari/a)"before." Replaced O.E. syndrig. Grew popular 17c. as a preferred alternative to the snobbish overtones in common. Meaning "not open to the public" is from late 14c. Of persons, "not holding public office" it is recorded from early 15c. Private soldier "one below the rank of a non-commissioned officer" is from 1570s. Private parts "the pudenda" is from 1785. Private enterprise first recorded 1844. Private sector is from 1952.
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301. Privilege=mid-12c. (recorded earlier in O.E., but as a Latin word), from O.Fr. privilege (12c.), from L. privilegium "law applying to one person," later "privilege," from privus "individual" + lex (gen. legis) "law” (ketu kemi tre fjale te ndryshme qe ndertojn konceptin e Privilegjit: Privus(private=per+vete) +ligj(per vete ligj=ligj per vete; qe nenkupton nje favor)

302. Profit(n)= early 14c., from O.Fr. prufit (mid-12c.), from L. profectus (perfiton)"profit, progress," prop. pp. of proficere (see proficiency). As the opposite of loss, it replaced O.E. gewinn. The verb is attested from c.1300, from O.Fr. prufiter, from the noun.

303. Prong=late 15c., from Anglo-Latin pronga "prong, pointed tool," of unknown origin, (Pranga) perhaps related to M.L.G. prange (Prang)"stick, restraining device," prangen (Pranga-Pengoj-Peng)"to press, pinch." See also prod, which may be related. Prong-horned antelope is from 1815.

304. Profound= c.1300, "characterized by intellectual depth," from O.Fr. profund (late 12c.), from L. profundus "deep, bottomless, vast," also "obscure, profound," from pro- "forth" (see pro-) + fundus (Pa-Fund) "bottom" (see fund (n.)). The literal and figurative senses both were in Latin, but English, already having deep, primarily employed this word in its figurative sense.

305. Prove=late 12c., prouwe, from O.Fr. prover (11c.), from L. probare "to test, prove worthy," from probus "worthy, good, upright, virtuous," from PIE *pro-bhwo- (Provo-me dhane provat-provim praktik) )"being in front," from *pro-, extended form of base *per-, + base *bhu- "to be" (cf. L. fui "I have been," futurus "about to be;" O.E. beon "to be;" see be.

306. Qua=as, in the capacity of," from L. qua, (kush-qysh) ablative singular fem. of qui "who," from PIE *kwo-,(kush, qysh-Ke-quhem) stem of relative and interrogative pronouns (cf. O.E. hwa "who," hwęt "what;" Goth. hvas "who;" Gk. posos "how much”

307. Quiet (n)= c.1300, from O.Fr. quiete, from L. quies (gen. quietis) "rest, quiet," (Qet) from PIE base *qwi- "rest" (qet-qetesi) (cf. Goth. hveila, O.E. hwil "space of time;" see while). The adj. is attested from late 14c.; the verb is first attested mid-15c.

308. Raise(v)= c.1200, from O.N. reisa "to raise," from P.Gmc. *raizjan (cf. Goth. ur-raisjan, O.E. ręran "to rear," see rear (v.)), causative of base *ris- "to rise" (Rris-rrit femijen-ngriu-ngrit) (see rise). At first sharing many senses with native rear (v.). Used in most of the varied modern senses since M.E.; some later evolutions include "to bring up" (a child), 1744; "to elevate" (the consciousness), 1970. The noun is first recorded c.1500 in sense of "a levy;" meaning "increase in amount or value" (rris vleren) is from 1728, specific sense in poker is from 1821. Meaning "increase in salary or wages" (rris-rrogen) is from 1898, chiefly Amer.Eng. (British preferring rise

309. Rapid=1630s, from L. rapidus "hasty, snatching," from rapere (ropat-vrap-vrull,)"hurry away, carry off, seize, plunder," from PIE base *rep- "to snatch" (rjep) (cf. Gk. ereptomai "devour," harpazein "snatch away"). Rapid-transit first attested 1873; rapid eye movement is from 1916

310. Recent=1530s, from L. recentem (nom. recens) "lately done or made, new, fresh," from re- (see re-) + PIE base *ken- "fresh, new, young" (Kone/klysh/qen) (cf. Gk. kainos "new;" Skt. kanina- "young;" O.Ir. cetu- "first;" O.C.S. na-cino "to begin," koni "beginning”.

311. Regal= early 14c., from L. regalis "royal, kingly, belonging to a king," from rex (gen. regis) "king," from PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line,( rregull- rregjim-rreshto) " hence, "direct, rule, guide" (cf. Skt. raj- "a king, a leader; (Krajl: besoj se vjen nga vjala Krye))" Avestan razeyeiti "directs;" Pers. rahst "right, correct;" L. regere "to rule," rex "a king, a leader," rectus "right, correct;" O.Ir. ri, Gaelic righ "a king;" Gaul. -rix "a king," in personal names, e.g. Vircingetorix; Goth. reiks "a leader;" O.E. rice "kingdom," -ric "king," rice "rich, powerful," riht "correct;" Goth. raihts, O.H.G. recht, O.Swed. reht, O.N. rettr "correct.

312. Repair(1)= to mend, to put back in order," late 14c., from O.Fr. reparer, from L. reparare "restore, put back in order," from re- "again" + parare (ri+paro-ta bej ashtu sic ishte me par)"make ready, prepare" (see pare). The noun is attested from 1590s.

313. Rheum=late 14c., from O.Fr. reume (13c.), from L. rheuma, from Gk. rheuma "stream, current, a flowing," from rhein "to flow," from PIE base *sreu- "to flow"(rrym-rrjedh-ret-resshje-reke) (cf. Skt. sravati "flows," srotah "stream;" Avestan thraotah- "stream, river," O.Pers. rauta "river;" Gk. Rheos (re-rrjedh) "a flowing, stream," rhythmos (rrym-ritem)"rhythm," rhytos "fluid, liquid;" O.Ir. sruaim, Ir. sruth "stream, river;" Welsh ffrwd "stream;" O.N. straumr, O.E. stream, O.H.G. strom (second element in maelstrom); Lett. strauma "stream, river;" Lith. sraveti "to trickle, ooze;" O.C.S. struja "river," o-strovu "island," lit. "that which is surrounded by a river;" Pol. strumyk "brook”

314. Right(adj.1)= (drejt-e ndershme) "morally correct," O.E. riht "just, good, fair, proper, fitting, straight," from P.Gmc. *rekhtaz (drejtaz) (cf. O.H.G. reht, (rresht) Ger. recht, (rresht) O.N. rettr, Goth. raihts), from PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," also "to rule, to lead straight, to put right" (see regal; cf. Gk. orektos (reshtosh) "stretched out, upright;" L. rectus (rresht)"straight, right;" O.Pers. rasta- (rreshto) "straight, right," aršta- "rectitude;" O.Ir. recht "law;" Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz "just, righteous, wise.

315. Rind=O.E. rinde "bark, crust," later "peel of a fruit or vegetable" (c.1400), from P.Gmc. *rendo- (rend-rendja) (cf. O.S. rinda, M.Du. rinde, Ger. Rinde), related to O.E. rendan "to rend.

316. Rock(v.1)= "to sway," late O.E. roccian, related to O.N. rykkja ( me u rrok: Rroken-me u zen)"to pull, tear, move," Swed. rycka "to pull, pluck," M.Du. rucken, O.H.G. rucchan, Ger. rücken (rroken, me u rrok-me u rraf ose me be mundje)"to move jerkily." For musical senses, see rock (v.2). Rocking horse is first recorded 1724; rocking chair is from 1766. To rock the boat is attested from 1931. Rock-a-bye first recorded 1805 in nursery rhyme. (Rokullitem-karakteristika e gurit, qe me format e ndryshme qe ka mund te rrokulliten drejtime te ndryshme. Edhe fjala “rroll”-qe do te thote rrokullitem, rrotull, mund te ket prejardhje nga kjo fjal nje formim I germave Rokullit)

317. Rodent= 1835, from Mod.L. rodentia, the order name, from L. rodentem (nom. rodens), prp. of rodere "to gnaw, eat away," from PIE base *red- "to scrape, scratch, gnaw" (rruaj-rjep) (cf. Skt. radati "scrapes, gnaws," radanah "tooth;" L. radere "to scrape;" Welsh rhathu "scrape, polish"). Uncertain connection to O.E. rętt (see rat ).

318. Rogue= 1560s, "idle vagrant," perhaps a shortened form of roger (with a hard -g-), thieves' slang for a begging vagabond(rrugac; qe vjen nga vjala Rrug)who pretends to be a poor scholar from Oxford or Cambridge, perhaps from L. rogare "to ask." Another theory traces it to Celtic (cf. Bret. rog "haughty"); OED says, "There is no evidence of connexion with F. rogue 'arrogant.' " Rogue's gallery "police collection of mug shots" is attested from 1859

319. Rotary=1731, from M.L. rotarius "pertaining to wheels," from L. rota (Rrota)"wheel," from PIE base *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll" (rrota-rrotullo-rrokullis) (cf. Skt. rathah "car, chariot;" Avestan ratho; Lith. ratas "wheel," ritu "I roll;" O.H.G. rad, Ger. Rad, Du. rad, O.Fris. reth, O.S. rath, O.Ir. roth, Welsh rhod "carriage wheel"). The international service club (founded by Paul P. Harris in Chicago in 1905) so called from the practice of clubs entertaining in rotation. Hence Rotarian (1911).

320. Rough=O.E. ruh "rough, untrimmed, uncultivated," from W.Gmc. *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (cf. M.Du. ruuch, Du. ruig, O.H.G. ruher, Ger. rauh (rrah-rraf-I rrafur: I pa rrafur I pa rrafinuar, I ashper), from P.Gmc. *rukhaz. The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. Sense of "approximate" is first recorded c.1600. The noun meaning "broken ground" is from late 15c. (phrase in the rough first recorded 1823); specific sense in golf is from 1901. Noun meaning "a rowdy" is first attested 1837. Rough draft is from 1699. Rough-and-ready is from 1810, originally military; rough-and-tumble (1810) is from the prize ring.

321. Royal=mid-13c., from O.Fr. roial, (Ruaj-Rroj{jetoj}) from L. regalis, (radh: qe vjen nga ruaj>me kuptimin qe ruan nje regull, sic eshte rradha: fjala “Rex” vjen nga fjala *reg=regulloj, mir mbaj ruaj=edhe ne shqip Mbreteroj=mbroj=mroj=mb(u)roj=mur=mburoje/m(b)uroje.)from rex (gen. regis) "king" (see rex). Battle royal (1670s) preserves the French custom of putting the adjective after the noun (cf. attorney general); the sense of the adj. here is "on a grand scale." As a modifier meaning "thorough, total" royal is attested in English from 1940s.The Royal Oak was a tree in Boscobel in Shropshire in which Charles II hid himself during flight after the Battle of Worcester in 1651. Sprigs of oak were worn to commemorate his restoration in 1660.

322. Rugae=pl. of ruga (Rudha) (1775), from L. ruga "a wrinkle in the face. (Rrudha-prap ketu hasim ne ndryshimin e “g” ne “dh”).

323. Rune= O.E. run, rune (ruan-run-ruaj)"secret, mystery, dark mysterious statement," also "a runic letter," from P.Gmc. *runo (cf. O.N. run (run-ruan-ruaj) "a secret, magic sign, runic character," O.H.G. runa "a secret conversation, whisper," Goth. runa), from PIE *ru-no-, source of technical terms of magic in Germanic and Celtic. The word entered M.E. as roun and by normal evolution would have become Mod.Eng. *rown, but it died out mid-15c. when the use of runes did. The modern usage is from 1680s, introduced by German philologists from a Scandinavian source (cf. Dan. rune, from O.N. run). The runic alphabet is believed to have developed by 2c. C.E. from contact with Greek writing, the alphabet modified to be more easily cut into wood or stone. Cf. also Runnymede.

324. Sanitary=1842, from Fr. sanitaire (1812), from L. sanitas (shenet/shendet) "health," from sanus (shenosh)"healthy, sane." In ref. to menstrual pads, first attested 1881 (in sanitary towel

325. Saw(1)= (sharr-gersher)"cutting tool," O.E. sagu, from P.Gmc. *sago "a cutting tool" (cf. O.E. seax "knife," O.N. sõg, Norw. sag, Dan. sav, M.Du. saghe, Du. zaag, O.H.G. saga, Ger. Säge "saw"), from PIE base *sak-/*sek- "to cut" (Thik-shkurto-(me sharru,me pre, me shkurtu)(cf. L. secare "to cut," Rus. sech' "to cut;" see section). The verb is attested from early 13c.; strong conjugation began 15c. on model of draw, etc. Sawed-off "short, cut short" is attested 1887 of persons, 1898 of shotguns.

326. Scampi=1930, pl. of It. scampo "prawn," ult. from Gk. kampe (Kam/kemb)"a bending, a winding," from PIE base *kamp- "to bend (kama-kemb-kand).

327. Scoop=early 14c., "utensil for bailing out" (n.), also (v.) "to bail out;" from M.Du. schope "bucket for bailing water," from W.Gmc. *skopo (cf. M.L.G. schope "ladle"), from P.Gmc. *skop-, from PIE *(s)kep- "to cut, to scrape, to hack." (skep-sqep-shqep)Also from Low Ger. scheppen (v.) "to draw water," from P.Gmc. *skuppon, from PIE root *skub- (cf. O.E. sceofl "shovel," O.S. skufla; see shove). The journalistic sense of "news published before a rival" is first recorded 1874, Amer.Eng., from earlier commercial slang sense of "appropriate so as to exclude competitors" (c.1850).

328. Script=late 14c., "something written," from O.Fr. escrit (Fr. écrit) "a writing, written paper," from L. scriptum (shkrim) "a writing, book, law, line, mark," noun use of neut. pp. of scribere "to write," from PIE *skreibh- (kruaj-kre/kreh [gryej, kruaj, (sh)kruaj ne gur]) (cf. Gk. s****phasthai "to scratch an outline, sketch," Lett. skripat "scratch, write," O.N. hrifa "scratch"), from base *sker- "cut, incise" (cf. O.E. sceran "cut off, shear;" see shear) on the notion of carving marks in stone, wood, etc. Meaning "handwriting" is recorded from 1860. Theatrical use, short for manuscript, is attested from 1897. The importance of Rome to the spread of civilization in Europe is attested by the fact that the word for "write" in Romance, Celtic and Germanic languages derives from scribere (e.g. Fr. écrire, Ir. scriobhaim, Welsh ysgrifennu, Ger. schreiben), but the cognate O.E. scrifan (shkrifton, me kuptimin qe shperndan) means "to allot, assign, decree" (see shrive; also cf. O.N. skript "penance") and Modern English uses write (q.v.) to express this action.

329. Scum= early 14c. (implied in scummer "shallow ladle for removing scum"), from M.Du. schume "foam, froth," from P.Gmc. *skuma- (shkume)(cf. O.N. skum, O.H.G. scum, Ger. Schaum (shkum) "foam, froth"), perhaps from PIE base *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal" (see hide (n.1)). Sense deteriorated from "thin layer atop liquid" to "film of dirt," then just "dirt." Meaning "lowest class of humanity" is 1580s; scum of the Earth is from 1712. Adopted in Romanic, cf. O.Fr. escume, Mod.Fr. écume, Sp. escuma, It. Schiuma

330. Scut=term of contempt for a person, 1873, of unknown origin. (mund te jete fjala shqipe “shkuth”).

331. See= O.E. seon (contracted class V strong verb; past tense seah, pp. sewen), from P.Gmc. *sekhwanan (cf. O.S., O.H.G. sehan, M.H.G., Ger. sehen, O.Fris. sia, M.Du. sien, O.N. sja, Goth. saihwan), from PIE base *sekw- "to see," (Shiko-prap e njejta gje si pe par) which is "probably" the same base that produced words for "say" in Greek and Latin, and also words for "follow" (cf. L. sequor), but "opinions differ in regard to the semantic starting-point and sequences" [Buck]. Thus see could originally mean "follow with the eyes." Used in M.E. to mean "behold in the imagination or in a dream" (c.1200), "to recognize the force of (a demonstration)," also c.1200, "often with ref. to metaphorical light or eyes" [OED], and "to learn by reading" (early 15c.). Past tense saw developed from O.E. pl. sawon.

332. Sell=O.E. sellan (sjell-sill)"to give," from P.Gmc. *saljanan (cf. O.N. selja (sjell)"to hand over, deliver, sell;" O.Fris. sella(sjell), O.H.G. sellen "to give, hand over, sell;" Goth. saljan "to offer a sacrifice"), perhaps a causative form of the root of O.E. sala "sale.", (sjelle: per tu permendur ketu eshte se albanologet mendojn se ne shqipe “e” e shkurter e gjuheve Indo-evropiane eshte ndruar ne “je” dhe “ie” kurse “e” e gjate ne “o” dhe disa here nga “o” ne a: ky ndryshim quhet Apofoni Qualitative qe zanoret ndryshohen sipas fonetikes se gjuhes: kurse Apofonia Kuantitative eshte ajo qe ruan zanoret ne 4 kategori, 1.shkurtohet< 2.zgjatet>3. Reduktohet>4. Zhduket: ne kete rast Fjala “Sell” eshte ndruar ne shqipe fonetikisht “Sjell” si dhe “Sold” “Solla”) te por One of the first things a student of Old English has to learn is that the word that looks like sell usually means "give." Meaning "to give up for money" had emerged by c.1000. An O.E. word for "to sell" was bebycgan, from bycgan "to buy." Slang meaning "to swindle" is from 1590s. The noun phrase hard sell is recorded from 1952. To sell one's soul is from c.1570. Sell-by date is from 1972. To sell (someone) down the river is first recorded 1927, but probably from slavery days, on notion of sale from the Upper South to the cotton plantations of the Deep South (attested in this literal sense since 1851). To sell like hot cakes is from 1839.

333. Sequel= early 15c., "train of followers," from O.Fr. sequelle, from L.L. sequela "that which follows, result, consequence," from sequi – (shok-shoqeroj-“social”shoqeri) "to follow," from PIE base *sekw- (basa e kesaj fjale eshte “Sekw- qe do te thote shiko” ne shqipe ka plot kuptim edhe ne kete kontekst: mund ti pershtasim fjalen Shoqero,shiqoje ndiqe, kujdesu.)(cf. Skt. sacate (shok-shoqate-shoqerone) "accompanies, follows," Avestan hacaiti, Gk. hepesthai "to follow," Lith. seku (shok(q)/ shoqero) "to follow," L. secundus (shoqeron)"second, the following," O.Ir. sechim "I follow"). Meaning "consequence" is attested from late 15c. Meaning "story that follows and continues another" first recorded 1510s.

334. Series= 1610s, "a number or set of things of one kind arranged in a line," from L. series "row, chain, series," from serere "to join, link, bind together, put," from PIE base *ser- "to line up, join" (seri-serisht-ser-perserit-shirit) (cf. Skt. sarat-(shirit) "thread," Gk. eirein "to fasten together in rows," Goth. sarwa (pl.) "armor, arms," O.N. sörve "necklace of stringed pearls," O.Ir. sernaid "he joins together," Welsh ystret (rresht) "row"). Meaning "set of printed works published consecutively" is from 1711. Meaning "set of radio or television programs with the same characters and themes" is attested from 1949.

335. Serpent=c.1300, "limbless reptile," also "tempter in Gen. iii:1-5," from O.Fr. sarpent, from L. serpentem (gjarpen: "S" eshte nderruar ne "Gj")(nom. serpens) "snake," from prp. of serpere "to creep," from PIE *serp- (svarr-svarritet-zvarranik-gjarpen) (cf. Skt. sarpati "creeps," sarpah "serpent;" Gk. herpein "to creep," herpeton "serpent;" Alb. garper "serpent”

336. Shear(v)= O.E. sceran, scieran (class IV strong verb; past tense scear, pp. scoren), from P.Gmc. *sker- "to cut" (ther-sharr-gersher) (cf. O.N., O.Fris. skera, Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear"), from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack" (ther-sharr-gersher: kjo e fundit pund te vij nga gervisht+ther(sharr)) (cf. Skt. krnati ( me ther: ketu “k” eshte shnderuar ne “th” “thrnati=ther” "hurts, wounds, kills," krntati "cuts;" Hittite karsh- "to cut off;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate;" O.Ir. scaraim "I separate;" Welsh ysgar "to separate," ysgyr "fragment”.

337. Shine(v)= O.E. scinan "shed light, be radiant" (class I strong verb; past tense scan, pp. scinen), from P.Gmc. *skinanan (cf. O.S., O.H.G. skinan, O.N., O.Fris. skina, Du. schijnen, Ger. scheinen, Goth. skeinan "to shine, appear"), from PIE base *skai- "to gleam, shine, flicker" (shkelqen-shkendi)(cf. O.C.S. snati "to flash up, shine;" Skt. chaya "brilliance, luster; shadow," Albanian he(hie) "shadow," Gk. skia "shade"). Transitive meaning "to black (boots)" is from 1610s. Related: Shined (in the shoe polish sense); shining.

338. Short= O.E. sceort, scort, probably from P.Gmc. *skurta- (shkurt-shkurto) (cf. O.N. skorta "to be short of," skort "shortness;" O.H.G. scurz "short"), from PIE base *sker- "to cut," with notion of "something cut off" (shkurto—tkurret-krasit-kruset) (cf. Skt. krdhuh "shortened, maimed, small;" L. curtus (krusur-shkrut) "short," cordus "late-born," originally "stunted in growth;" O.C.S. kratuku, Rus. korotkij "short;" Lith. skurstu to be stunted," skardus "steep;" O.Ir. cert "small," M.Ir. corr (korr, I prem, shkurtuar) "stunted, dwarfish"). Meaning "rude" is attested from late 14c. To fall short is from archery. Short fuse in fig. sense of "quick temper" first attested 1968. Short story first recorded 1877. To make short work of is first attested 1570s. Phrase short and sweet is from 1530s.

339. Sign(n)= early 13c., "gesture or motion of the hand," from O.Fr. signe "sign, mark, signature," from L. signum "mark, token, indication, symbol," from PIE base *sekw- "point out" (shiku-shiqo: me kuptimin e venjes ne dukje: shikoni fjalen “see”)(see see). Meaning "a mark or device having some special importance" is recorded from late 13c.; that of "a miracle" is from c.1300. Sense of "characteristic device attached to the front of an inn, shop, etc., to distinguish it from others" is first recorded mid-15c. Ousted native token. In some uses, the word probably is aphetic for ensign. Sign language is recorded from 1847; earlier hand-language (1670s)

340. Siren=mid-14c., "sea nymph who by her singing lures sailors to their destruction," (Zeri-zanat) from O.Fr. sereine, from L.L. Sirena, from L. Siren, from Gk. Seiren (zerin) ["Odyssey," xii.39 ff.], perhaps lit. "binder," from seira "cord, rope." ??? Meaning "device that makes a warning sound" (on an ambulance, etc.) first recorded 1879, in reference to steamboats. Figurative sense of "one who sings sweetly and charms" is recorded from 1580s.

341. Society= 1530s, "friendly association with others," from O.Fr. societe, from L. societatem (nom. societas), from socius "companion" (shok,shoqe, shoqeri,shoqeroj) (see social). Meaning "group of people living together in an ordered community" is from 1630s. Sense of "fashionable people and their doings" is first recorded 1823.

342. Sophist=1540s, earlier sophister (late 14c.), from L. sophista, sophistes, from Gk. sophistes, from sophizesthai "to become wise or learned," from sophos "wise, clever,"(shof-me kuptimin qe eshte I mencur-zgjuar largpames: ne shqipe egziston thenia “ai/ajo eshte i/e pare,” qe nenkupton experience ka pare/shikuar boten) of unknown origin. Gk. sophistes came to mean "one who gives intellectual instruction for pay," and, contrasted with "philosopher," (fillo-shof: ne fund te fundit ai qe filozofon eshte ai qe ka nje fantazi(phantazia) ai qe eshte ne gjendje te shikoj perpunoj ne mendje dhe interpretoj ate qe ai shef. Kety e ka thelbin dhe kuptimin fjala Shophist: mbrapa shtesa “ist” e bene akoma me te bindshme qe mund te ket qen nje fjale shqipe e vjeter, sepse shtesa eshte edhe ne gjuhen e sotme te shqipes, p.sh. futbollist/e, kitarrist/e, flautist/e, profesionist.) it became a term of contempt. Ancient sophists were famous for their clever, specious arguments.

343. Span= O.E. spannen "to clasp, fasten, stretch, span," from P.Gmc. *spanwanan (cf. O.N. spenna, O.Fris. spanna, M.Du. spannen, O.H.G. spannan, Ger. spannen), from PIE base *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin" (Punon-shpend)(cf. L. pendere "to hang, to cause to hang," pondus "weight" (the weight of a thing measured by how much it stretches a cord), pensare "to weigh, consider;" Gk. ponein "to toil;(Punon) “Toil”=( pune e rend shume e lodhshme) " Lith. spendziu "lay a snare;" O.C.S. peti "stretch, strain," pato "fetter," pina "I span;" O.E. spinnan "to spin;" for other cognates, see spin). The meaning "to encircle with the hand(s)" is from 1781; in the sense of "to form an arch over (something)" it is first recorded 1630s

344. Speed(n)= O.E. sped "success, prosperity, advancement," from P.Gmc. *spodiz (cf. O.S. spod "success," Du. spoed "haste, speed," O.H.G. spuot "success," O.S. spodian "to cause to succeed," M.Du. spoeden, O.H.G. spuoten (shpejt)"to haste"), from PIE *spo-ti- "speed," (shejt)from *spe- "to thrive, prosper" (cf. Skt. sphayate "increases," L. sperare "to hope," (shprese)O.C.S. spechu "endeavor," Lith. speju "to have leisure"). Meaning "quickness of motion or progress" emerged in late O.E. (usually adverbially, in dative plural, e.g. spedum feran), emerging fully in early M.E. Meaning "gear of a machine" is attested from 1866. Meaning "methamphetamine, or a related drug," first attested 1967, from its effect on users. Speeder "one who drives fast" is recorded from 1891. Speed bump is 1975; figurative sense is 1990s. Full speed is recorded from late 14c. Speed reading first attested 1965. Speedball "mix of cocaine and morphine or heroin" is recorded from 1909.

345. Sporadic=1650s (implied in sporadical), from M.L. sporadicus "scattered," from Gk. sporadikos "scattered," from sporas (sperkat-shperthe-shpernda) (gen. sporados) "scattered," from spora (shporru, shpie/shpiere{sjell/coj} qe nen kupton distance, larg nga qendra, qe mund te vij nga fjala shpina : me mbajt dicka ne shpine)"a sowing" (see spore). Originally a medical term, "occurring in scattered instances;" the meaning "happening at intervals" is first recorded 1847. Related: Sporadically

346. Steam= O.E. steam "vapor, fume," from P.Gmc. *staumaz (cf. Du. stoom), of unknown origin. The verb is from O.E. stemen, stymen (Tym)"to emit a scent or odor;" slang meaning "to make angry"( me u be Tym-nevrik) is from 1922. Steamer is 1814 in the cookery sense, 1825 as "a vessel propelled by steam," hence steamer trunk (1885), one that carries the essentials for a voyage. Steam age first attested 1941. Steam heat as a method of temperature control recorded from 1904. Steam-roller is from 1866; as a verb, first recorded 1912.

347. Stork=O.E. storc, related to stear "stiff, strong" (see stark), from P.Gmc. *sturkaz (cf. O.N. storkr, M.Du. storc, O.H.G. storah, Ger. Storch "stork"). Perhaps so called with reference to the bird's stiff or rigid posture. But some connect the word to Gk. torgos "vulture." O.C.S. struku, Rus. sterch, Lith. starkus, Magyar eszterag, Albanian sterkjok "stork" (kjo ka edhe kuptime te tjera ne shqip: p.sh. sternip-stermunduar) are Gmc. loan-words. The fable that babies are brought by storks is from Ger. and Du. nursery stories, no doubt from the notion that storks nesting on one's roof meant good luck, often in the form of family happiness.

348. Straight(n)= 1864, "straight part of a race track," from straight (Drejt) (adj.1). Poker sense attested from 1841. Meaning "conventional person" is first recorded 1967 (see straight (adj.2)

349. Strain(n)= "line of descent," O.E. strion, streon "gain, begetting," from P.Gmc. *streun- "to pile up," from PIE base *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out" (shtri-shtrat-shtro) (see structure). Applied to animal species first in c.1600.

350. Strain(v)= "to stretch, draw tight," c.1300, from prp. stem of O.Fr. estreindre "bind tightly, clasp, squeeze," from L. stringere (2) "bind or draw tight," from PIE base *strenk- "tight, narrow; pull tight, twist" (shtrengo-shtrydh-ndrydh-Shtrember) (cf. Lith. stregti "congeal;" Gk. strangein "twist;" O.H.G. strician "mends nets;" O.E. streccian "to stretch," streng "string;" Ger. stramm, Du. stram "stiff"). Sense of "press through a filter" is from early 14c. (implied in strainer); that of "lay undue stress on, make a forced interpretation of" is from mid-15c. Noun sense of "injury caused by straining" is from 1550s. The meaning "passage of music" (1570s) probably developed from a verb meaning "to tighten" the voice, originally the strings of a musical instrument (late 14c)
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351. Stratum="horizontal layer," (shtrat)1590s, from Mod.L. stratum, special use of L. stratum "thing spread out, coverlet, pavement," from neut. pp. of sternere "to spread out, lay down, stretch out," from PIE *stre-to- "to stretch, extend," (shtrihetm-shtrat) from base *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out" (see structure)

352. Strepho=c.1600, from Gk. strophe "stanza," (strof: vargje poezie) originally "a turning," in reference to the section of an ode sung by the chorus while turning in one direction, from strephein "to turn," from PIE *strebh- "to wind, turn" (shtremb-shtremberon)(cf. Gk. strophaligs "whirl, whirlwind," streblos "twisted”.

353. String(n)=O.E. streng "line, cord, thread," from P.Gmc. *strangiz (cf. O.N. strengr, Dan. streng, M.Du. strenge, Du. streng, O.H.G. strang, Ger. Strang "rope, cord"), from base *strang- "taut, stiff," from PIE base *strenk- "tight, narrow; pull tight, twist" (shtrengo)(see strain). Gradually restricted by early M.E. to lines that are smaller than a rope. Sense of "a number of objects arranged in a line" first recorded late 15c. O.E. meaning "ligaments, tendons" is preserved in hamstring, heartstrings. Meaning "limitations, stipulations" (1888) is Amer.Eng., probably from the common April Fool's joke of leaving a purse that looks full of money on the sidewalk, then tugging it away with an attached string when someone stoops to pick it up. To pull strings "control the course of affairs" (1860) is from the notion of puppet theater. First string, second string, etc. in athletics (1863) is from archers' custom of carrying spare bowstrings in the event that one breaks. Strings "stringed instruments" is attested from mid-14c. String bean is from 1759; string bikini is from 1974.

354. Stun= c.1300, "to daze or render unconscious" (from a blow, powerful emotion, etc.), probably aphetic of O.Fr. estoner "to stun" ( u shtang- me kuptimin qe u tund trondit) (see astonish). Stunning popularized for "splendid, excellent" c.1849.

355. Super= from L. adverb and preposition super "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from PIE base *uper "over" (Siper-Hyp-Supe-Hypur) (cf. Skt. upari, Avestan upairi "over, above, beyond," Gk. hyper, O.E. ofer "over," Goth. ufaro "over, across," Gaul. ver-, O.Ir. for), comparative of base *upo "under. (posht-me kuptimin nen dicka)

356. Syn= prefix meaning "together with," from Gk. syn "with, together with," of unknown origin???? (Syn- Syt-{ shikimi- Syte, Shikimi dhe preceptimi I sakte I distances se nje objekti mund te arrihet vetem kur te dy syte funksionojn.. le te shikojm fjalen Sinonim.)

357. Synonym= early 15c. (but rare before 18c.), from L. synonymum, from Gk. synonymon "word having the same sense as another," (ne kete rast Syn eshte pershtatur kesaj fjale me kuptimin qe dy fjalet kane te njejtin kuptim, ashty sic dhe syt kryejn te njejtin funksion). noun use of neut. of synonymos "having the same name as, synonymous," from syn- "together, same" + onyma, Aeolic dialectal form of onoma "name" (see name)

358. Tailor= late 13c., from Anglo-Fr. tailour, from O.Fr. tailleor "tailor," lit. "a cutter," from tailler "to cut," from M.L. taliator vestium " (Veshies)a cutter of clothes," from L.L. taliare "to split," from L. talea "a slender stick, rod, staff, a cutting, twig," on the notion of a piece of a plant cut for grafting. Possible cognates include Skt. talah "wine palm," O.Lith. talokas "a young girl," Gk. talis "a marriageable girl" (for sense, cf. slip of a girl, twiggy), Etruscan Tholna, name of the goddess of youth.

359. Teach=O.E. tęcan (past tense and pp. tęhte) "to show, point out," also "to give instruction," from P.Gmc. *taikijanan (cf. O.H.G. zihan, Ger. zeihen "to accuse," (zihet-me u zan: besoj se kjo vjal ne shqipe ka ardhur nga “zierja” nga vala-vlon qe nenkupton nje acarim: siduket ne Gjermanishte ka marr kuptimin a akuzimit) Goth. ga-teihan "to announce"), from PIE *deik- "to show, point out" (duket-dallon-) (see diction). Related to O.E. tacen, tacn "sign, mark" (see token). O.E. tęcan had more usually a sense of "show, declare, warn, persuade" (cf. Ger. zeigen "to show," from the same root); while the O.E. word for "to teach, instruct, guide" was more commonly lęran, source of modern learn and lore.

360. Tersus=the ankle bones collectively, 1670s, Modern Latin, from Gk. tarsos "ankle, sole of the foot, rim of the eyelid," originally "flat surface, especially for drying," from PIE base *ters- "to dry" (Tret-Thar-{Ters}-Tharse)-(cf. Gk. teresesthai "to be or become dry," tersainein "to make dry;" L. terra "land, ground, soil," torrere "dry up, parch;" see terrain.

361. Thalia= fem. proper name, from Gk. Thaleia, lit. "luxuriant, blooming," from thallein "to bloom" ??? (see thallus). Eighth of the Muses, presiding over comedy(tallia: me u tall) and idyllic poetry. Also one of the three Graces, patroness of festive meetings

362. Thesaurus= 1823, "treasury, storehouse," from L. thesaurus "treasury, treasure," from Gk. thesauros "a treasure, treasury, storehouse, chest," (thesar: thes me ar: fillimisht ka pasur kuptimin praktik dhe me vone edhe figurative si “thesar” dicka e cmushme )from root of tithenai "to put, to place."??? The meaning "encyclopedia filled with information" is from 1840, but existed earlier as thesaurarie (1590s), used as a title by early dictionary compilers. Meaning "collection of words arranged according to sense" is first attested 1852 in Roget's title. Thesaur is attested in M.E. with the meaning "treasure" (15c.-16c).

363. Thirst=O.E. žurst, from W.Gmc. *thurstus (cf. O.S. thurst, Fris. torst, Du. dorst, O.H.G., Ger. durst), from P.Gmc. *thurs-, from PIE base *ters- "dry" (thar-that-thatsi-thart-truall/troje-ters)(see terrain). Figurative sense of "vehement desire" is attested from c.1200.

364. Thou=2nd nominative singular personal pronoun, O.E. žu, from P.Gmc. *thu (cf. O.Fris. thu, M.Du., M.L.G. du, O.H.G., Ger. du, O.N. žu, Goth. žu), from PIE *tu-, second person singular pronoun (Ti, pam fjalen “you”=ju dhe tani “Thou”=Ti, pra shqipja I ka te dyja por as qe permendet asgjekundi. Keto fjale jane ta lashta, jane fjalet e para te formuara ne cdo gjuhe, dhe sic thash me par te dyja format egzistojn ne gjuhen shqipe)(cf. L. tu(Ti-Tuat), Ir. Tu (Ti-Tuat), Welsh ti, Gk. su, Lith. Tu(Ti-Tuat), O.C.S. ty (Ty-Yti), Skt. twa-m). Superseded in M.E. by plural form you (from a different root), but retained in certain dialects (e.g. Philadelphia Quakers). The plural at first was used in addressing superior individuals, later also (to err on the side of propriety) strangers, and ultimately all equals. By c.1450 the use of thou to address inferiors gave it a tinge. of insult unless addressed by parents to children, or intimates to one another. Hence the verb meaning "to use 'thou' to a person" (mid-15c)

365. Throe=c.1200, throwe "pain, pang of childbirth, agony of death," possibly from O.E. žrawan "twist, turn, writhe" (see throw), or altered from O.E. žrea (gen. žrawe) "affliction, pang, evil, threat" (related to žrowian "to suffer"), from P.Gmc. *thrawo (cf. M.H.G. dro "threat," Ger. drohen (druhem-me u drujt) "to threaten"). Modern spelling first recorded 1610s.

366. Touch= late 13c., from O.Fr. touchier "to touch, hit, knock" (11c.), from V.L. *toccare "to knock, strike" as a bell (cf. Sp. tocar, It. toccare), perhaps of imitative origin. (te takosh-prekesh) Meaning "to get or borrow money" first recorded 1760. Touched "stirred emotionally" is from mid-14c.; touching "affecting the emotions" is from c.1600. Touch and go (adj.) is recorded from 1812, apparently from the name of a tag-like game, first recorded 1650s. Touch football is first attested 1933. Touch-me-not (1590s) translates L. noli-me-tangere

367. Tradition=late 14c., from O.Fr. tradicion (late 13c.), from L. traditionem (nom. traditio) "delivery, surrender, a handing down," from traditus, pp. of tradere "deliver, hand over," from trans- (tra-ure)"over" + dare (dore-dorezon)"to give" (see date (1)). The word is a doublet of treason (q.v.). The notion in the modern sense of the word is of things "handed down" from generation to generation.

368. Transparent=early 15c., from M.L. transparentem (nom. transparens), prp. of transparere "show light through," from L. trans- (Tra, ure, qe lidh dy ane)"through" (see trans-) + parere (me pa) "come in sight, appear." Figurative sense of "easily seen through" is first attested 1590s. The attempt to back-form a verb transpare (c.1600) died with the 17c.

369. Tremble(v)= .1300, "shake from fear, cold, etc.," from O.Fr. trembler (Tremb) "tremble, fear" (11c.), from V.L. *tremulare (cf. It. tremolare, Sp. temblar), from L. tremulus "trembling, tremulous," from tremere "to tremble, shiver, quake," from PIE *trem- "to tremble" (trem-tremb-termet-)(cf. Gk. tremein "to shiver, tremble," Lith. trimu "to chase away," O.C.S. treso "to shake," Goth. žramstei "grasshopper"). A native word for this was O.E. bifian. Related: Trembled; trembling. The noun is recorded from c.1600.

370. Troop= 1540s, "body of soldiers," from M.Fr. troupe, from O.Fr. trope "band of people, company, troop" (13c.), probably from Frank. *throp "assembly, gathering of people" (Trup)(cf. O.E. šorp, O.N. thorp "village," see thorp). OED derives the French word from L. troppus "flock," which is of unknown origin but may be from the Germanic source. The verb is attested from 1560s, "to assemble;" meaning "to march" is recorded from 1590s; that of "to go in great numbers, to flock" is from c.1600.

371. True=O.E. triewe (W.Saxon), treowe (Mercian) "faithful, trustworthy," from P.Gmc. *trewwjaz "having or characterized by good faith" (cf. O.Fris. triuwi, Du. getrouw, O.H.G. gatriuwu, Ger. treu, O.N. tryggr, Goth. triggws "faithful, trusty"), perhaps ultimately from PIE *dru- "tree," (dru) on the notion of "steadfast as an oak." Cf., from same root, Lith. drutas "firm," Welsh drud, O.Ir. dron "strong," Welsh derw "true," O.Ir. derb "sure." Sense of "consistent with fact" first recorded c.1200; that of "real, genuine, not counterfeit" is from late 14c.; that of "agreeing with a certain standard" (as true north) is from c.1550. Of artifacts, "accurately fitted or shaped" it is recorded from late 15c.; the verb in this sense is from 1841. True-love (adj.) is recorded from late 15c.; true-born first attested 1590s. True-false as a type of test question is recorded from 1923.

372. Trunk= mid-15c., "box, case," from O.Fr. tronc "alms box in a church" (12c.), also "trunk of a tree, trunk of the human body," from L. truncus, originally "mutilated, cut off." The meaning "box, case" is likely to be from the notion of the body as the "case" of the organs. English acquired the other two senses of the O.Fr. in late 15c.: "main stem of a tree" (Trung-ndoshta vjen nga tra) and "torso of a human body." (Trup) The sense of "luggage compartment of a motor vehicle" is from 1930. The use in reference to an elephant's snout is from 1560s, perhaps from confusion with trump (short for trumpet). Railroad trunk line is attested from 1843; telephone version is from 1889.

373. Twin=O.E. twinn "consisting of two, twofold, double," probably ultimately from P.Gmc. *twinjaz (cf. O.N. tvinnr, O.Dan. tvinling, Du. tweeling, Ger. zwillung), from PIE *dwisno- (mund te lidhim fjalen shqipe Dy-Njisoj, (di/y-nisoj)sic perdoret edhe ne shqip Bi(Di)+Njak(Nje-Soj) (cf. L. bini "two each," Lith. dvynu "twins"), from *dwi- "double," from base *dwo- "two" (see two). The verb meaning "to combine two things closely" is recorded from late 14c. The noun
developed from O.E. getwinn "double”

374. Ultimo="in the month preceding the present," 1610s, common in abbreviated form ult. in 18c.-19c. correspondence and newspapers, from L. ultimo (mense) "of last (month)," abl. sing. masc. of ultimus "last" (Ulet-ulem, me kupimin me I ulti, me posht. I fundit,Ultimatum ) (see ultimate). Earlier it was used in the sense of "on the last day of the month specified" (1580s)

375. Unguent= ointment," mid-15c., from L. unguentem "ointment," from stem of unguere "to anoint or smear with ointment," from PIE base *ongw- "to salve, anoint" (Ngjy-te gjyrosesh-{vezet e pashkeve}) (cf. Skt. anakti "anoints, smears," Armenian aucanem "I anoint," O.Pruss. anctan "butter," O.H.G. ancho, Ger. anke "butter," O.Ir. imb, Welsh ymenyn "butter

376. Union= early 15c., "action of joining one thing to another," from O.Fr. union (12c.), from L.L. unionem (nom. unio) "oneness, unity, a uniting," also in L. meaning "a single pearl or onion," from unus "one," from PIE *oinos (une-nje-me kuptimin ) (see one). Sense of "action of uniting into one political body" is attested from 1540s. Meaning "group of people or states" is from 1650s. Short for trade union, it is recorded from 1833. U.S. political sense is attested from 1775; used especially during the Civil War, in reference to the remainder of the United States after the Southern secession.

377. Vapor= late 14c., from Anglo-Fr. vapour, from L. vaporem (nom. vapor) "exhalation, steam, heat," of unknown origin. (Vap-nxet-me kuptimin e avullit qe vaporrat nxjerrin nga djega e qymyrit apo drurit) Vapors "fit of fainting, hysteria, etc." is 1660s, from medieval notion of "exhalations" from the stomach or other organs affecting the brain

378. Vary= mid-14c. (trans.), late 14c. (intrans.), from O.Fr. varier, from L. variare "change, alter, make different," from varius "varied, different, spotted;" perhaps related to varus "bent, crooked, knock-kneed," and varix "varicose vein," from a PIE base *wer- (var-varur-variant-variacion: Besoj se fjala Variant/variacion eshte nje zgjerim I fjales “Var”) "high raised spot or other bodily infirmity" (cf. O.E. wearte "wart," Swed. varbulde "pus swelling," L. verruca "wart”.

379. Veal=late 14c., from Anglo-Fr. vel, from O.Fr. veel "a calf" (Fr. veau), earlier vedel, from L. vitellus, dim. of vitulus "calf," (Vic: shikoni fjalen “wether dhe veteran”))perhaps originally "yearling," if related, as some think, to Skt. vatsah "calf," lit. "yearling;" Goth. wižrus, O.E. wešer (see wether; cf. also veteran.

380. Veteran=c.1500, "old experienced soldier," (vjeteruar) from Fr. vétéran, from L. veteranus "old," from vetus (gen. veteris) "old," from PIE *wetus- "year" (vit-vjet-I vjeter-vjeteruar: pra dhe fjala veteran qe eshte plotesisht shqip)(cf. Skt. vatsa- "year," Gk. Etos(jet-vit) "year," Hittite witish (viti)"year," O.C.S. vetuchu "old," O.Lith. vetušas "old, aged"). L. vetus is the ultimate source of It. vecchio, Fr. vieux, Sp. viejo. General sense of "one who has seen long service in any office or position" is attested from 1590s. The adjective first recorded 1610s.


382. Visit=early 13c., "come to (a person) to comfort or benefit," (Vi-Vizit-vizitoj) from O.Fr. visiter, from L. visitare "to go to see, come to inspect," frequentative of visere "behold, visit" (a person or place), from pp. stem of videre "to see, notice, observe" (see vision). Originally of the deity, later of pastors and doctors (c.1300), general sense of "pay a call" is from 1620s. Meaning "come upon, afflict" (in ref. to sickness, punishment, etc.) is recorded from mid-14c. The noun is 1620s, from the verb.

383. Vote=mid-15c., from L. votum (Vote-vjen nga Vet-vetja: Votimi mund te behet vetem nga “dora vet” )"a vow, wish, promise, dedication," noun use of neuter of votus, pp. of vovere "to promise, dedicate" (see vow). The verb in the modern sense is attested from 1550s; earlier it meant "to vow" to do something (1530s). Related: Voted; voting.

384. Walk=.E. wealcan "to toss, roll," and wealcian "to roll up, curl, muffle up," from P.Gmc. *welk- (cf. O.N. valka "to drag about," Dan. valke "to full," M.Du. walken "to knead, press, full," O.H.G. walchan "to knead," Ger. walken "to full"), perhaps ultimately from PIE base *wel- "to turn, bend, twist, roll" (vele-vale-vallzon-valvit) (see vulva). Meaning shifted in early M.E., perhaps from colloquial use of the O.E. word. "Rarely is there so specific a word as NE walk, clearly distinguished from both go and run" [Buck]. Meaning "to go away" is recorded from mid-15c. Trans. meaning "to exercise a dog (or horse)" is from late 15c. The surname Walker probably preserves the cloth-fulling sense.

385. Warm(adj)= O.E. wearm, from P.Gmc. *warmaz (cf. O.S., O.Fris., M.Du., O.H.G., Ger. warm, O.N. varmr, Goth. warmjan "to warm"), from PIE *gwher- (Ngroh-Nxehur) )(cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" O.Pers. Garmapada-, name of the fourth month, corresponding to June/July, from garma- "heat;" Arm. jerm "warm;" Gk. thermos "warm;" L. formus "warm," fornax "oven;" O.Ir. fogeir "heated;" Hitt. war- "to burn"). The root also may be connected to that of O.C.S. goriti "to burn," varu "heat," variti "to cook, boil;" and Lith. verdu "to seethe." The distinction, based on degree of heat, between "warm" and "hot" is general in Balto-Slavic and Germanic, but in other languages one word often covers both (cf. L. calidus, Gk. thermos, Fr. chaud, Sp. caliente). In reference to feelings, etc., attested from late 15c. Sense in guessing games first recorded 1860, from earlier hunting use in reference to scent or trail (1713). Warm-blooded in reference to mammals is recorded from 1793. Warm-hearted first recorded c.1500.

386. Warrant(v)= late 13c., "to keep safe from danger," (ruan-ruaj) from O.N.Fr. warantir (O.Fr. garantir)(ruan), from warant (see warrant (n.)). Meaning "to guarantee to be of quality" is attested from late 14c.; sense of "to guarantee as true" is recorded from.

387. Wether=O.E. wešer "ram," from P.Gmc. *wethruz (cf. O.S. wethar, O.N. vešr, O.H.G. widar, Ger. Widder, Goth. wižrus "lamb"), lit. "yearling," from PIE base *wet- "year" (vit-vjet-vjeter:shikoni fjalen “veteran”)(cf. Skt. vatsah "calf," Gk. etalon "yearling," L. vitulus "calf," lit. "yearling"). Male sheep, especially a castrated one.

388. Who=O.E. hwa, from P.Gmc. *khwas, (kush)*khwes, *khwo (cf. O.S. hwe, Dan. hvo, Swed. vem, O.Fris. hwa, Du. wie, O.H.G. hwer, Ger. wer, Goth. hvo (fem.) "who"), from PIE *qwos/*qwes (kush-quhesh-ky/kjo) (cf. Skt. kah "who, which," Avestan ko, Hittite kuish (kush) "who," L. qui,(ku-kush) quae, quod (cka-me von cfar)"who, which, what," Lith. kas "who," O.C.S. kuto, Rus. kto "who," O.Ir. ce, Welsh pwy "who”

389. Will(v)= O.E. *willan, wyllan "to wish, desire, want" (past tense wolde), from P.Gmc. *welljan (cf. O.S. willian, O.N. vilja, O.Fris. willa, Du. willen, O.H.G. wellan, Ger. wollen, Goth. wiljan "to will, wish, desire," Goth. waljan "to choose"), from PIE *wel-/*wol- "be pleasing" (Vullnet-Volitshme) (cf. Skt. vrnoti "chooses, prefers," varyah "to be chosen, eligible, excellent," varanam "choosing;" Avestan verenav- "to wish, will, choose;" Gk. elpis "hope;" L. volo, velle "to wish, will, desire;" O.C.S. voljo, voliti "to will," veljo, veleti "to command;" Lith. velyti "to wish, favor," pa-vel-mi "I will," viliuos "I hope;" Welsh gwell "better"). Cf. also O.E. wel "well," lit. "according to one's wish;" wela "well-being, riches." The use as a future auxiliary was already developing in O.E. The implication of intention or volition distinguishes it from shall, which expresses or implies obligation or necessity. Contracted forms, especially after pronouns, began to appear 16c., as in sheele for "she will." The form with an apostrophe is from 17c.

390. Write=O.E. writan "to score, outline, draw the figure of," later "to set down in writing" (class I strong verb; past tense wrat, pp. writen), from P.Gmc. *writanan "tear, scratch" (cf. O.Fris. writa "to write," O.S. writan "to tear, scratch, write," O.N. rita "write, scratch, outline," O.H.G. rizan "to write, scratch, tear," Ger. reißen "to tear, pull, tug, sketch, draw, design"), outside connections doubtful. Words for "write" in most I.E languages originally mean "carve, scratch (krujt-kruaj-shkruaj-krim-kerm-kermill: ne se nuk gaboj ne nje nendialekt to toskerishtes kruaj thuhet te “to kruac” qe I afrohet edhe shqiptimit te fjales anglishte qe shqiptohet “skreac” sa I perket fjales Shkruaj qe mendohet qe eshte huazuar nga italishtja, ne shqipe ka me kuptim, rrenja e saj eshte me krujt), cut" (cf. L. scribere, Gk. Grapho( edhe ketu e njejta gje ndodh “grapho” ne shqipe perdoret “grafik” fjen nga fjala shqipe gry, gryej, ashtu sic vjen edht fjala germ, gram, grimc), Skt. rikh-); a few originally meant "paint" (cf. Goth. meljan, O.C.S. pisati, and most of the modern Slavic cognates.

391. Yard=ground around a house," O.E. geard "enclosure, garden, court, house, yard," from P.Gmc. *garda (cf. O.N. garšr "enclosure, garden, yard;" O.Fris. garda, Du. gaard, O.H.G. garto, Ger. Garten "garden;" Goth. gards "house," garda "stall"), from PIE *gharto-, (Gardh) from base *gher- "to grasp, enclose" (cf. O.E. gyrdan "to gird," Skt. ghra- "house," Alb. garth "hedge," L. hortus "garden," Phrygian -gordum "town," Gk. khortos "pasture," O.Ir. gort "field," Bret. garz "enclosure, garden," and second element in L. cohors "enclosure, yard, company of soldiers, multitude.

392. You=O.E. eow, dat. and acc. pl. of žu (see thou), objective case of ge, "ye" (see ye), from W.Gmc. *iuwiz (cf. O.N. yor, O.S. iu, O.Fris. iuwe, M.Du., Du. u, O.H.G. iu, iuwih, Ger. euch), from PIE *ju (Ju/ti, shikoni fjalen Thou dhe Out)

393. Zeal= late 14c., from L.L. zelus "zeal, emulation" (cf. O.Fr. zel, It. zelo, Sp. celo), a Church word, from Gk. zelos "zeal, ardor, jealousy," which is of uncertain origin (Zili-zell-ziej nga inati).

394. Zygote= 1891, from Gk. zygotos "yoked," from zygon "yoke" (zgjedhe) (see jugular).
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Perfundimi

Duke pas parasysh zbulimet arkiologjike,burimet e rrymeve te ndryshme, hipotezat dhe mendimet e ndryshme nga linguistet, shkrimtaret, shkenctar, akademiket dhe “amatoret” mbar eshte e pamundur qe te mos ngacmoj ideja qe shqipja dhe folesit e saj te ken rrenjet shume me thelle se cfar eshte menduar dhe “konstatuar” deri tani.

Sic kam permendur gjate gjith keti shkrimi shqipja ne ndertimin dhe domethenien e saj eshte dicka shume e vecant e “paster”,autentike, dhe kur dihet dhe flitet mire figurat qe ajo paraqet jave vetevetiu te kulluara dhe shume te kuptueshme. Dua ta lidhe “pastertine” dhe”kullimin” qe shqipja zoteron, me njerezit e lashte sepse edhe ata ne mendimet dhe shprehjet e tyre ishin teper te ” kulluar” dhe te thjeshte. Gjate kohes dhe hapesires qe jetuan ata ishin ne zbulim te vazhdueshem te vetvetes, te ambjentit qe I rrethonte dhe harmonise midis Njeriut dhe Natyres. Ata e shikonin boten me syte dhe habin, me fantazine dhe gjyrat e nje femije, qe ben pytje te tilla: si krijohet shiu, cfar eshte rrufeja, a mund ta shuhet dielli, dhe kur shikon tymin apo avullin qe del nga oxhaqet e fabrikave pyet nese ky eshte vendi ku behen “ Ret”. Kjo e fundit ka nje te vertet, nje te vertet qe mund te “shikohet” vetem nga syt dhe mendja e paster e femijve. Keto karakteristika kishin edhe njerezit e lashte. Shpirti I tyre ishte teper I celur dhe I paster, dhe natyrisht kapricioze , mendja teper kurjoze dhe e kujdesshme. Ata ishin te paret qe konceptualizuan se dicka tjeter qendron ne thellesine e botes fizike: Metafizika. (fjale plotesisht shqip-Me tej botes dhe forms Fizike). Dyluftimi midis botes spirituale dhe asaj fizike (shpirtit dhe mendjes) per prioritet do te rreultonte ne enderrat, frymezimet, lindja e conceptit te botes Reale dhe ate Abstrakte, te Vertetes dhe te Mashtrimit, te Virtyteve dhe te Veseve, Qyteterimit dhe Barbarizmit. Keta njerez ishin teper largpames, ata hodhen hapat e para drejt civilizimit te mirefillt te njeriut. Ata lane gjurmet e tyre ne gojedhanat, traditat, doket qe me kalimin e kohes u nderlidhen dhe krijuan “letersine” e pare Mitologjine. Shkrime te cilat ne thelbin e tyre edhe sote jane teper elucative. Ata arriten ta njohin njeriun dhe mundesite e tij shume mire. Figurat dhe karakteret mernin permasa gjikande dhe teper supernatyrale ashtu sic ne te vertet jane mundesite e njeriut, si ne bamiresi ashtu edhe ne keqberje, karakteristika te njeriut qe do te mbeten gjithmone nje pjese e pandare e tij.

Fatmiresisht,apo fatkeqsisht varet nga kendveshtrimi, njerezit sote jetojn ne nje bote krejt ndryshe. Ne nje bote qe cdo gje eshte e gatshme. Kur njeriu rritet ne nje ambient te tille eshte I predispozuar te ket nje qendrim indifferent kundrejt ngjarjeve dhe faktoreve qe formuan boten e tyre. Sa me te hershme ngarjet aqe me pak eshte interesi. Ne te vertet thelle ne kronologjine e histories se botes dhe ne vecanti ate te Europes dhe te gadishullit Ballkanike strehohen te Dhena jashte zakonisht te rendesishme qe me ane te studimit objektive mund te zbardhin drite mbi “enigmen” e Shqiptarit. Keto civilizime lane shkrimet, testamentin e cultures se tyre, qe ne thelb ruajn nje ‘thesare’, nje message, nje udhesim qe I ka qendruar dhe do te vazhdoj ti qendroj kohes. Ato jane harta dhe busulla qe prin njeriun ne rrugen e tij te paparashikueshme. Fatekeqsisht keto shkrime jane humbur ne chaosin e botes se sotme qe jo vetem nuk pranon realitetin ashtu sic ka qene, por mundohet ta shtremberoj historine si ti pelqej. Sote ne jetojm ne nje “bote” ku civilizimi I mirefillt po zevendesohet nga cthurrje degjeneruse. Ne nje bote ku e Verteta dhe Drejtesia trajtohen si nje besdisje, thjesht sepse Pengon ose bie ne kontradikt me boten materiale dhe subjective te njeriut egoist. E verteta duhet te mbi jetoj sepse eshte e vetmja gje qe ndan Fjalen nga Veprimi, Civilizimin nga Degjenerimi, Premtimin nga Mashtrimi, Pastertin nga Pislleku, Ndershmerin nga Djallezia, dhe Absurditetin nga Realiteti. Kjo e fundit ka nje rendesi te vacant sepse ne thellesi ajo strehon nje fenomen qe I jep plot kuptim conceptit dhe cfar ne kuptojm me te “ Verteten”. E verteta dhe realiteti I pakundershtueshem I njeriut eshte qe ai nje dite Vdes. Nje ndjenj dhe nje realitet qe eshte shtypur dhe fundosur shume thelle ne psikozen e cdokujt. Por ne te vertet ky Rrealitet eshte pikerisht ai qe i jep jetes bukurin, domethenien, gjyrat dhe nuancat e saj te vecanta. Madje I jeq jetes edhe nje “qellim”.

Pra duket se njeriu eshte I predispozuar per te kundershtuar te verteten nga vet natyra, dhe diku, ne mes te gjith ketyre kondtraditave te shumta, gjenden shqipetaret, gjuha dhe historia e tyre. Se pari si nje popull qe ka dhene kontributin e vet, te pa nderprere, si pjese e barabarte , madje disa here edhe si iniciator I ngjarjeve me domethenese qe ndikuan dhe formuan te ardhmen e te gjithe kontinentit Europian. Duke filluar qe nga periudha e ashtu quajtur “djepi I civilizimit” e deri ne kohet moderne si anetare te NATOS: Dhe se dyti: si nje testament I gjalle I nje populli te stervuajtur shpirterisht, dhe I copetuar fizikisht, nga padrejtesirat qe vazhdojn ti behen nen hunden e botes se “civilizuar”. Historia e popullit tone dhe gjuhes se tij eshte nji nga “enigmat” me shqetesuese dhe problematike per zgjithjen e “Ceshtjes Shqipetare” ne rajonin e Ballkanit dhe perfundimisht gjith kontinentit Europjan.

Historia dhe si rrejedhoj identiteti kombetare i popullit shqiptare eshte i mbushur me “spekulime” dhe “mite” te pafundta, identitet kombetare I ndertuar plotesisht nga gojedhena dhe legjenda lokale, si figura e te ashtu quajturit babait te kombit “Skenderbeu”. Te gjitha keto pretendime tekanjoze kan rrezultuar ne akuza dhe luftra te padrejta kunder fqinjeve te tyre “. Pak ashume keshtu shkruajn disa “akademik” te huaj per popullin shqiptar. Sado qe shkrimet e manipuluara dhe shtrembimi I histories mund te ndikojn ne opinion publik,dhe deri diku mentalitetin e te keqinformuarit, kurresesi nuk arrijn te ndryshojn rrjedhen e gjarjeve te verteta. E verteta gjithmone le gjurmet e veta. Ne raste te tilla e verteta gjendet ne mendjen dhe memorjen e popullit ne doket, zakonet, kenget, toponimet, emertimet qe trashegohen brez pas brezi dhe ne kete menyre ngurtezohen ne nje gjendje te perjetshme dhe te paprekur.

Ne kete gjendje sote e kesaj dite mund te gjehet nje plak I ulur ne prag te oborrit, apo ndonje guri, te kulles se tij te lasht qe ende kendon bemat e luftetareve dhe heronjeve te krahines me nje instrument te thjesht dhe primitive si lahuta e malesise. Nje pamje qe jep pershtypjen se ky ka qene kety I ulur ne kete gur I pa levizur I palekundur gjate mijevjecareve dhe sikur me kengen e tij mundohet te tregoj kalimetareve qe kjo eshte shtepia e tij e lasht kur dikur, Hektori, Akili, Odisea dhe shoket e tij, Pirroja, Teuta, Genci, Gjergj Kastrioti kan ndaluar per te pir nje gllenk uji nga pusi I tij. Kety mund te gjehen tragjedite ‘Greke’ plotesisht te realizuara ne gjakederdhjet, tradhetite dhe dhimbjet e paimagjinushme qe populli jone ka perjetuar gjate histories heroike te tije.


Ne bregdetin, fushat dhe malet, ne mes te bjeshkeve, shkembinjeve dhe humnerave, egzistojn sakrifica , mikpritje, bujari, beselidhje, trimeri te pa konceptuare nga ndonje vend apo shoqeri tjeter. Ne shqiperi mund te gjesh nje karakteristik te malesise, kur nje familje nuk ka trasheguar burr, dhe kur babai vdes vajza me e madhe e pamartuar merr rrolin e burrit, duke prer floket veshur si burr dhe nuk martohet per hir te “ruajtjes” dhe prirjes se familjes. Pra kjo vajz mohon vullnetarisht te drejten qe asaj i eshte dhen nga natyra per te jeturar dhe gezuar jeten e femres. Kjo te kujton e Athinen qe shpesh here shnderoheshte ne figura te ndryshme per ti thene kurajo ushtareve qe lufonin ne fushen e betejes.

Tek shqiptari I “vertet” mund te gjesh gjestin qe beri Priami “Dardan” kur u gjunjezua dhe puthi doren e Akilit duke iu lutur qe ta lejonte te merrte kufomen e djalit te tij(Parisit) te copetuar, ne te njejten menyre veprojn sote Dardanet moderne, plaget e te cileve akoma rrjedhin gjak nga barbarizmat dhe masakrat e fundit qe iu bene nga serbet, jo me shume se 15 vjet me par. Per hire te paqes ne rajon I nenshtrohen kerkesave te nderkombetareve per tu ulur ne te njejten tavoline me vrasesit dhe perdhunuesit e vemijeve te tyre. Por kjo nuk mbaron ketu. Ne shqiperi egziston edhe nje fenomen tjeter, ne mos gabohem, ne Kelmend te Shkodres egziston nje familje qe ruan eshtrat e dy apo tre ushtareve turq te vrare gjate betejes se famshme “kryengritja e malesoreve”. Gjate kesaj beteje keta ushtare turq kishin vrare edhe gjyshin e familjes qe sote kujdesen per varret e tyre. Ata I ruajn dhe kujdesen per keto varre sepse mendojn, dhe shpresojn se nje dite ata do te kerkohen nga familja ose njerezit e tyre, sepse ne fund te fundit ata ishin ushtare te thjesht, qe ishin te detyruar te zbatoni urdherat. Ne kete shoqeri gjejme te pandryshuar dinakerine e Odises qe me ane te Kalit te Trojes arriti ti dhuronte “Grekeve” fitoren e shume deshiruar, pushtimin e Trojes pas thjetra vitesh lufte te pergjakur. Ne kete menyre antishqiptari dhe diktatori modern me famkeqe I shqiperise arriti te fusi Kalin e Trojes (Komunizmin) ne shqiperi dhe si shperblim per kete dhuroj Djepin I vertet te Shqiptarizmit Kosovn. Per te permendur ketu eshte se kjo Tradheti ishte e domosdoshme per te mposhtur identitetin dhe shpirtin luftarak te shqipetarit. Karakteristika te cilat jan shume evidente ne sacrificat pafund qe populli jone ka qene I detyruar te bej per te mbijetuar. Ne rrethana me absurde, ne keto kushte te veshtira dhe me mizore njeriu dhe karakteri I tij u vu ne nje experiment te verte.

Diku midis fjaleve te para qe njeriu shqiptoj, kurioziteti dhe deshira e tij per te ditur dhe shpjeguar gjithcka qe rrethon, concepti I vetdijes, ngjitja e tij ne shkallet e njerezimit te mirefillt, dhe deshira e tij e vazhdueshme per te bashkpunur dhe bashkjetuar ne paqe me fiqinjet e cdo kohe dhe haprsire dhe sefundi vendbanimi I tij ne kohen dhe hapesiren e sotme, Jeton shpirti I shqiptarit qe nuk u mposht dote kurre. Trojet tona etnike jane bekuar nga Zoti vet, me nje bukuri perrallore, me nje popull hyjonre qe flet gjuhen e perendive.

Une personalisht kam pare me shume akte Civilizimi nga banoret e bjeshkeve dhe maleve me te egra te shqiperise se ne mes te Athines, Brukselit, Zurikut, New Yorku-t etj, etj. Qe te vleresosh ate qe them une duhet te kuptosh se cfar eshte civilizimi I vertet. Per “burrneshen” qe permenda me pare, u shkruajt nje artikull ne New York Times. Autori I shkrimit e “cvleresoj” nje akt te tille si barbare dhe te prapambetur. Ne rastin me te mire e quajti nje qendrim ose trajtim jo i drejte I femres ne shoqerine shqiptare. Ky eshte nje rast tipik kur te huajt arrijn ne paragjykime dhe percaktime te padrejta, pa bere asnji analize apo studimi pa njohur historine, traditat dhe kulturen e popullit tone. Ne kete menyre popullit tone jane bere shume padrejtsira. Besoj se me Padrejtesite, vuajtjet, keqtrajtimin, nenvleresimin, gjakun e derdhur pa hesap per qindra vite te panderprera dhe ende ne vazhdim, kami paguar “faturen” 500 vjet parakohe,ne qoftese fati do te ndryshonte sado pak ne favorin tone.

Sic permenda me pare, ne rastin e gazetarin Amrikan, mentalitete dhe qendrime te tilla nuk ndihmojn ne zgjidhjen e ceshtjes shqiptare, madje ato demtojn. Eshte nje fatkeqesi qe sote ne shekullin e XXI te behen shkrime dhe dallime te tilla qe te kujtojne epoken e erret mesjetare. Sote ne jetojm ne epoken e teknologjise se tejzhvilluar. Ne nje kohe kur qarkullimi I informacionit eshte I pa kufizuar. Qendrimi indifferent ndaj zbardhjes se histories se vertet eshte I papranueshem dhe I pajustifikueshem. Sote shqipetaret me teper se kurre duhet te zbulojn sa thelle I kane rrenjet e sa gjere jane perhapur deget e tyre, ashtu edhe bota mbar do te zbuloj se kush eshte shqiperia etnike, populli dhe gjuha e saj, dhe shqresoj se nje dite te vihen ne lartesine qe meritojn.
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i vjetėr 17-11-2011, 00:21   #14
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Maqellarjot,tema eshte e bukur.Nuk e lexova komplet,por e mendoj, o jam dakort,pak a shum me Landin.
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i vjetėr 17-11-2011, 04:21   #15
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Maqellarjot,po jap edhe une mendimin tim.Nje mendim ne pergjithesi,se ne veēanti nuk kuptoj nga gjuha,o rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe.Sepse nuk ja them nga Etimologjia.

E para;nuk e kam kuptuar pse gjuha shqipe ben pjese ne grupin e gjuheve Indioeuropiane e jo ne ate te Neolatineve.(o me mir nuk dua ta kuptoj)
Duke u shprehur qe rjedhim nga Pellazget e pastaj Iliret,ka diēka qe bie ne kundershtim.Sepse simbas teorive Pellazget kishin o formuan alfabetin e tyre,e simbas keti alfabeti u formua dhe ai Latin.Kjo teori hyne tek legjendat,si dhe tema per te cilen diskutojme.

E dyta;nuk e kuptoj ate proto indioeuropiane,se eshte pa kuptim.Sepse simbas teorive popujt qe krijuan djepin e indio-europianizmit vine nga rafshnaltat e Azize Qendrore,shum larg.
Ndersa Indi-Europianet duhet te jene popujt iranian,si Medi,Persianet,o Asiret e Babilonezet.Nga keto popuj rrjedhin dhe Semitet dhe Kamitet,qe jane egjiptjanet,hebrenjte,arabet,fenikasit,o i kananei,etiopjanet o berberet etj etj..
Popujt indio-europian nuk vine nga nje renje e vetme,kurse popujt europian jane pothuajse te lidhur midis tyre si gjeman,sllav,grek,ēelt, apo italian...Nese u zgjata njeēik shume e kur zgjatesh del edhe nga tema.

Per vjetersine e gjuhes shqipe,o ate qe e supozojme ilire,nuk kemi fakte historike,nuk kemi asgje te shkruar.Vetem filozofia e krahasimit mund te na sjelli ndonje teori si shpegim.Por edhe filozofia e krahasimit do fakte,ndersa ne i sjellim vetem fantazi.
Gjuha shqipe e sotme eshte e perbere nga shume fjate te gjuheve te tjera,si ajo italiane,turke,greke,e rumune.

Tani per te krahasuar gjuhen shqipe me gjuhe e tjera le te marim disa fjale elementare,qe supozohet se duhet te jene fjalet e para o fjalori primitiv qe njerezit e lashtesise perdornin,si fjalet Baba o Néna o "Mama" :

Latinisht,pater.Italisht padre.Frengjisht pére.Gjermanisht Vater.Hollandezet vader.Angjlisht father.Ne Greqisht ishte pater.Ndersa ne gjuhen Persiane e ne gjuhen antike Indiane ishte pitar.
Ne te njejten menyre dhe fjala Nene:Latinisht mater, madre, mére,Mutter,moeder,mother,meter,e ne fund matar.(ne rusisht matj)

Se me lodhe Maqellarjot.Kjo per te treguar se gjuhet edhe ngjajne me njera tjetren,o rjedhin nga njera tjetra,e shqipja nuk ngjan me asnje,per disa fjale qe duam,e shume fjale te tjera i kemi kopiuar....
Duhet te kesh fantazi,qe me mungon,per te krahasuar nje gjuhe primitive me nje gjuhe moderne.E per te gjetur rrenjet e gjuhes shqipe....kjo fantazi duhet tejkaluar.
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i vjetėr 17-11-2011, 16:35   #16
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Dua te hap debatin e pare te kesaj teme me nje citim nga shkrimi “Sado qe shkrimet e manipuluara dhe shtrembimi I histories mund te ndikojn ne opinion publik,dhe deri diku mentalitetin e te keqinformuarit, kurresesi nuk arrijn te ndryshojn rrjedhen e gjarjeve te verteta. E verteta gjithmone le gjurmet e veta. Ne raste te tilla e verteta gjendet ne mendjen dhe memorjen e popullit ne doket, zakonet, kenget, toponimet, emertimet qe trashegohen brez pas brezi dhe ne kete menyre ngurtezohen ne nje gjendje te perjetshme dhe te paprekur”. Perdora kete citim ne vecanti sepse ky eshte thelbi I gjith shkrimit qe kam bere, dhe si I till do te jete qendra qe une do te gravitoj gjate gjithe debateve qe mund te shpalosen ne kete tem.

Pershendetje Serafim, dhe Landi…Me pelqen fakti qe te dy jeni skeptic dhe nuk hidheni “brenda me te dy kemet”. Le te shpresojm qe te gjithe te mesojm dicka te re nga njeri tjeteri sado te skajshme mund te jen pikpamjet tona. Une besoj se ne te tre mund te puqemi te pakten ne nje gje te vetme deri tani, persakohe qendrojm Brenda temes ne fjale. Ne jemi dakord se Shqipja eshte gjuhe shume e vjeter. Per mua kjo ka shume rendesi. Te tjerat do te vine dal nga dale

Landi thot : Te krahasosh fjalet e gjuhes shqipe moderne me latinishten e 2000 vjeteve me pare eshte Marrezi” dhe “ Ka shume Etimologe qe si Idiote mundohen te rindertojn gjuhen PIE, dicka qe nuk eshte vertetuar te ket egzistuar”

Keto jane deklarate te llogjikshme deri diku. Them deri diku sepse deklarata te tilla nenkuptojn se ju mundoheni te trajtoni nje subjkti Rrelativ, si dicka Absolute. Subjekti apo fusha e Linguishtikes eshte nje product I Njeriut, qe eshte nje pordukt I natyres, e cila eshte ne ndryshim dhe evoluim te vazhdueshem the te perjetshem. Pra si produkti I natyres Njeriu dhe gjithcka qe ai krijon jane gjithashtu ne ndryshim te vazhdueshem. E vetmja gje absolute ne kete bote eshte, Ligji/et e Natyres.

Le te shikojm Deklaratat e mesiperme pak me afer: Le te fillojm me fjalen “Gjurme”. Cfar kuptojm neve me fjalen dhe konceptin figurative “Gjurme”. Me pak fjale kuptojm nje “Shenj”. Gjurma ne siperfaqe nuk mund te pasqyroj asnji gje perreth atributeve fizike te njeriut qe I perkasin. Por ne qoftese marrim mundimin ta shikojm nga afer dhe ta studjojm, sote zoterojm, mjetet dhe veglat per te “te cmontuar” dhe rindertuar skeletin e individit qe I perkasin, dhe si rrjedhoj tipin e trupit, peshen, gjatesin madje ndoshta edhe moshen. Ne te njejten menyre Etimologet Gjuhetaret, Shkencetaret keto “Idiotet” qe I kushtojn gjithe jeten e tyre profesionit, jane munduar te ri-ndertojn gjuhen hipoteze Proto-Indo-Europjane. Eshe e vertet qe faktet nuk egzistojn per vertetimin e kesaj gjuhe, por mundesite jane shume te forta ,te bazuara ne studime rigoroze dhe serioze.

Deri ne mes te shekullit XIX mendoheshte se Troja,dhe Lufterat perreths saj ishin vetem nje Mit, nje Goje Dhen, Nje “Marrezi”. Por ja qe u vertetua se nuk ka qene vete nje Mit. Arkiologu I famshem Heinrich Schliemann , instistonte se Troja dhe Lufterat kane egzistuar. Ja qe erdhi dita qe ai Gjeti vendndodhjen e Trojes me saktesi . Por si arriti te bene ai dicka te tille kur nuk egzistonte asnje Fakt I Mirefillt per egzistencen e Trojes, pervecese disa shrimeve “poemave” Homerike? E gjeti me ane te ,Arsyes, Vullnetit, Deshires, Kurajos, Kuriozitetit dhe Besimit! Por mbi te gjitha ndoqi “Gjurmet” e lena ne rrjedhen e kohes qe per te tjeret ishin te paperfillshme pothuajse te padukshme, thjesht sepse Koha kishte bere te veten duke I mbuluar me nje shtrese te holle pluhuri.

Po bie nje shembull Konkret: Absurdity= late 15c., from M.Fr. absurdité, from L.L. absurditatem (nom. absurditas) "dissonance, incongruity," noun of state from L. absurdus "out of tune;" figuratively "incongruous, silly, senseless," from ab- intens. prefix + surdus (shurdh, ai qe nuk urdherohet s’urdherohet, ai qe nuk degjon: qe nuk merr do urdhera verbalisht.) "dull, deaf, mute" (see susurration)

Fjala Absurd ne sipefaqe nuk duket te ket asnje lidhje me gjuhen shqipe. Por ne fakt ne thellesi ka shume mundesi qe te ket rrenjet ne gjuhen shqipe. Absurd esthe nje koncept abstract qe eshte formuar nga nje fjale qe ka pase funksion“praktik”, vjen nga fjala “Shurdh”. Shurdh do te thote ai qe “nuk degjon, ai qe nuk Urdherohet=s’urdherohet: ne Gegnishten Urdhen, Urdhenohet. Vini re se sa shume I afrohet dialekti I gelgenistes fjales Ordine. P.sh “nje sherbetore qe eshte shurdhe nuk mund te urdherohet/urdhenohet, nuk merr dote urdherat. Po fjala Urdher nga vjen? Vjen nga fjala Radh. Urdher ka nje perdorim te gjere por si qender ka fjalen Radh.

Cdo shoqeri ka Rradhet e saj te hiarkise. P.sh. Urdheri I pare=dore e pare=Radhe e pare: Urdher=Rregull. Kur perfytyron dika te rradhitur nenkupton Rregull. “rregullo dicka duke rradhitur”renditur” sipas radhes” Perfundimisht mendoj se fjala Absurd ka si rrenje fjalen Radh. Dhe si koncept eshte plotesisht ne perputhje me te kunderten e rradhitjes, renditjes, rregullit. Absurd eshte dicka e “crregullt” dicka qe nuk ka llogjik, D.m.th e kunderta e Radhes.

Besoj se edhe fjala Ordiner, qe vetem ne shqipe perdoret ne shkallen me negative vjen nga fjala Urdher. Qe nenkupton “ Njeri qe I perket klases me te ulet: klases qe “urdherohet, qe merr urdherat”. Qe te kuptohet kjo qe them une duhet te shkojm shume mbarapa ne te kaluaren, ne periudhat kur shoqeria dominoheshte nga Hiarkia Sunduese. Ne periudhat ku njeriu I thjesht nuk ishte azgje me teper se nje Skllav apo veger qe perdoreshte per te rahatuar jeten e Padronit!

P.S nuk kam then kuresesi se Anglishtja ka marre fjale nga shqipja. Kam perdorur Etimologjine e vjaleve Agnleze, prejardhjen e tyre per te paraqitur gjashmerine qe fjalet shqipe kane me to, dhe ne disa raste ku thuhet “Unknown Origin” “Origjina e fjaleve eshte enigem” cuditerisht shpjehohen me ane te shqipes!!!
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i vjetėr 17-11-2011, 18:50   #17
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Fjala “Pater” eshte fjala Ate. Me kalimin e kohes eshte zevendesuar me fjalen Baba. Ne anglishte perdoret edhe fjala “Dad” ne shqipe “T[at]a”. Ne gjuhen shqipe fjala Ate ka dhene jete fjaleve dhe koncepteve te tjera. Si Atdhe “Ate+Dhe: dy fjale shume te vjetra” koncept ky qe nenkupton Vendlindjen. Etni-Etnicitet, konceptj tjeter qe lidhet direkt me fjalen “Ate”. Cila gjuhe tjeter nga Grupi Indo-Europian mund te shpjegoje prejardhjen e kesaj fjale me mire se Shqipja???

Fjala “Mother” vjen nga fjala “Mater” qe vjen nga fjala “Miter”. Qe nenkupton gjenin femerore. Individi qe mban Mitren. Nenkupton aftesine per te riprodhuar. Ne gjuhen shqipe ka mbijetuar ne formen “Moter” dhe "Miter". Cila gjuhe tjeter e grupit Indo-europian mund te shpjegoj perjardhjen e kesaj fjale me mire se Shqipja. Ne me te shumten ne Ne Greqishten e vjeter te thoste nje lloj Kapeleje, Veshje e kokes!!!

Proto-Indo-Europjane do te thote: Perpara degezimit te popujve gjuheve Indo-Evropian. Mendohet se perpara degezimit ose ndarvjeve te popullsive ka egzistuar nje popull I vetem qe fliste nje gjuhe. Pellazget dhe “Pellazgjishtja” gjuha meme e gjithe gjuheve Indo-Evropiane. Semitet mendohet se jane produkti I perzierjes se Pellazgeve me Shumeret. Pra Rraca e Bardhe me te Zezen. Dhe si rrjedhoj Arabet dhe Jifutet. Perzierje te tilla u ndodhen gjate Tre ekspeditave me massive qe sipermori Populli “pellazg” , I cili arrit te shkoj deri ne Indi. Ekspedita e Lekas se Madh ishte nje ndjekja e gjurmeve qe te paret e tyre lane, ne ekspeditat e meparshme. Leka ishte me se I informuar per te kaluaren e paraardhesve te tije.

Ne te ashtu quajturen Mitologjine “Greke” “ Demeter” ishte Zonja e reprodhimit, Prejardhja e fjales nuk ka asnji kuptim jo vetem ne Greqishten e vjeter por ne asnji gjuhe tjeter pervec Shqipes. Fjala Miter I pershtatet Konceptit te Demeter-it plotesisht. Me e shumta qe eshte konstatuar deri tani, eshte se I takon nje Civilizimi para Grek. Hmmmmmm cilit Civilizim Para-Grek. Ndoshta ai Pellazg apo Ilir??

Si shpjegohen fjalet e perbashketa qe ka Shqipja me Sankritishten=Proto-Indishten: gjuhe plotesisht e Zhdukur per dhjetra e dhjetra shekujsh???

P.S nuk po mundohem t'ju impnoj pikpamjet e mija, thjesht po shpjegoj se si i mendoj dhe arsyetoj ne kete fush. Jame kurioze te di se ku qendron "ana" tjeter dhe se ku bazoni kundershtimin.
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i vjetėr 17-11-2011, 22:44   #18
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Citim:
Postimi origjinal ėshtė bėrė nga SERAFIM DILO Shiko postimin
...
Gjuha shqipe e sotme eshte e perbere nga shume fjate te gjuheve te tjera,si ajo italiane,turke,greke,e rumune.
Te gjithe gjuhet kane marre dhe kane dhene me njera tjetren. Ky eshte nje fakt qe nuk mund te kundershtohet. Fillimisht Greqishtja, pastaj Latinishtja dhe si rrjedhoj te gjitha gjuhet derrivat te saj, kane marre nga nje shqipe e lashte. Me vone madje edhe Turqishtja, Sidomos Rrumanishtja kane marre fjale nga Shqipja. Mendohet se te gjithe gjuhet e Ballkanit Modernet sic jane Servishtja, Bullgarishtja, Greqishtja e mesme dhe moderne, "Maqedonishtja", Rrumanishtja jane te influencuara nga Shqipja. Keto konkluzione jane marre nga Specialiste Albanolog, Neutral. Kryesisht Austriak. Per dike objktive dicka e tille eshte dshume e natyrshme dhe e pranueshme. Fatkeqesisht elementi Ekstrem Anti-Shqiptar ben nje lufte te ashper dhe te pamershirshem Gjuhes shqipe.

Mendohet se ne Rrumanishte, egzistojn perreth 500+ fjale qe nuk kane lidhje me Latinishten hic fare, perkundrazi perkthehen me ane te Shqipes. Disa Gjuhetar, dihet se kush, kundershtojn kete me vrere. Perse qeka kaq e pamundur qe Rrumanishtja te ket marre fjale nga Shqipja. Perpara dyndjeve te Hordhive Sllave ne Ballkan Shqipetaret dhe Rrumunet ishin Fqinje. Kjo esthe edhe periudha me enigmatike per popujt Shqiptare dhe Rrumune. Cfar enigma ka ketu??? Kjo eshte pikerisht periudha kur Sllavet filluan te perqendrohen ne ballkanin perndimor dhe u ngulen nji here e pergjithmone. Ndan Shqiptaret nga Rrumunet dhe sote pretendojn se jane Pasardhes te Ilireve??? Kjo eshte Cmenduri dhe Marrezi!!!!

Tek shqiptaret egziston nje Mani qe mjafton qe nji fjale Shqipe te egzistoj ne nje gjuhe tjeter dhe ajo duhet te jete doemos fjale e "huaj", ne te njejten kohe egziston edhe nje Mani tjeter plotesisht ne kahun e kundert. Mjafton qe nje fjale e huaj te egzistoj ne shqipe dhe do e mose duhet te kete rrenjet te Shqipja. P.Sh Disa mendojn se Fjala Afrike ka ardhur nga fjala Shqipe "Frika"!!!!!

Do te bie disa fjale te Rrumanishtes qe mendohen te jen marre nga Shqipja:

Abur-steam, vapour-Cf. Albanian avull (steam). Dacian: *abhula. PIE: *h2ep-h3ṇ-lo-

Alac-Albanian akuė or Albanian lakėr (greenery) of Greek origin.

Baci-(chief) shepherd-Also Cf. Albanian bacė (father).

Baligă-dung, manure-Cf. Albanian bajgė (same meaning).

baltă- pool, puddle -Cf. Albanian baltė
(mud, soil)

barză-stork (Ciconia ciconia)-Cf. Albanian barth, feminine bardhė (white).

bălaur-dragon, monster-Cf. Albanian bollė (snake)

bīr-Sheep (Not in current use), Preserved as interjection, a call for the sheep to come-Albanian berr ‘a sheep’

bīrsă-a piece of wood or iron that binds together the coulter-Cf. Albanian vėrz (plane (tool)?),

boare-breeze-Albanian: borė (snow)

brad(archaic form *bradzŭ)fir (any tree of genus Abies)-Albanian bradh or bredh (same meaning).

brīu-belt, waist-Cf. Albanian bres or brezi

bucura (verb)bucuros (adj.)-(to be) glad, to enjoy-
Cf. Albanian zbukuroj (beautify) bukurosh (handsome).

bunget-thick and dark forest-Cf. Albanian bunk.

burtă-belly, stomach-Cf. Albanian barku (same meaning).

buză-Lip-Cf. Albanian buzė (same meaning)

caţă-long stick ending with a hook, used by shepherds-Cf. Albanian cita (weaving sticks)

căciulă-brimless hat-Albanian kėsul'ė (same meaning)

căpuşă-tick-Cf. Albanian kėpushė (same meaning).

căpută-upper side of a foot; footwear covering it-Cf. Albanian kėpucė (shoe) or kėputė (sole of a foot);

cătun-hamlet-Cf. Albanian katund (village),

cioară-crow-Cf. Albanian sorrė (same meaning).

cioc-beak-Cf. Albanian ēok (hammer, knuckle).

codru-wide old forest-Cf. Albanian koder (hill)

copac-tree-Cf. Albanian kopaēe (big piece of wood).

copil-child-Cf. Albanian kopil (bastard),

curma-to tighten (a rope); to cut, stop-Cf. Albanian kurmue

curpăn-vine, twining stem-Cf. Albanian kurpen (?).

cursă-trap, snare-Cf. Albanian kurth (same meaning)

daş-ram-Albanian: dash (same meaning).

dărīma-to demolish, to knock down-Cf. Albanian: dėrrmoj (same meaning)

droaie-crowd, large number (of people or animals)-Cf. Albanian droe or droje (shyness from the crowd)

fărīmă-crumb, fragment-Cf. Albanian thėrrime (same meaning).

gata-ready, done-Cf. Albanian gati (same meaning).

gălbează-fascioliasis-Cf. Albanian gėlbazė, kėlbazė (phlegm).

gheară-claw, talon-Cf. Albanian dorė (arm, clutches, fist, flipper, hand, handful, mitt, palm, quality), darė (nippers, pincers, pinchers), ējerr (clapperclaw, lacerate, scratch, tear up), grric or gervish (scratch)

ghimpe-thorn-Cf. Albanian gjėmp, gjemb (same meaning).

ghionoaie-woodpecker-Cf. Albanian gjon (night bird).

ghiuj-old, decrepit man-Cf. Albanian gjysh (grandfather).

grapă-harrow-Cf. Albanian grep, gėrepė (fishing rod, [its] hook).

gresie-sandstone, whetstone-Cf. Albanian gėresė (?).

groapă-hole, pit-Cf. Albanian gropė (same meaning).

grumaz- neck-Cf. Albanian gurmaz or gėrmaz (throat).

grunz-a lump of stiff but brittle substance, such as a block of salt- Cf. Albanian grundė (?).

gudura- to fawn-Cf. Albanian gudulis (to tickle)

guşă-a bird's crop; double chin, goiter-Cf. Albanian gushė (same meaning, plus Adam's apple

mal-shore-Cf. Albanian mal (mountain).

mazăre-pea (Pisum sativum)-Cf. Albanian modhė and modhullė.

măgură-hill, knoll-Cf. Albanian magulė (same meaning)

mămăligă-cornmeal mush (mămăligă)-Albanian mėmeligė (same meaning)


mistreţ-wild boar-Albanian: mistrec (mischievous person)

mīnz-foal, colt-Cf. Albanian mėz (same meaning).

moş-old man- cf. Albanian moshė (age).

mugure- bud-Cf. Albanian mugull (gemma).

năpīrcă- limbless lizard (Anguis fragilis); viper-Cf. Albanian nepėrkė, nėpėrkė (viper).

păstaie- pod, capsule, hull -Cf. Albanian pistaė, bishtajė (beans).

pīrīu-brook, creek-Cf. Albanian pėrrua (creek, stream);

raţă-duck-Cf. Albanian rosė (same meaning)

sarbăd-(today searbăd)insipid-Cf. Albanian tharbėt (acrid).


scăpăra- to strike a flintstone (to start a fire)-Cf. Albanian sqepar (small axe for cutting meat)

scrum-ashes-Cf. Albanian shkrum, shkrumb (same meaning). .

scula-to get up, to wake- Albanian shkul (uproot)

sterp-sterile, infertile-Albanian: shterp (same meaning).

străghiată-storm-Cf. Albanian shtrėngatė (same meaning).

strepede larva- living in foodstuff (Piophila casei)-Cf. Albanian shtrep (cheese-worm).

strungă- place for milking sheep; narrow passage, canyon-[COLOR="red"]Cf. Albanian shtrungė (sheep-pen; passage).[/COLOR

şale-hips-Cf Albanian shale (thigh)

şut-hornless-Albanian: shyt (same meaning)

traistă- bag-Albanian trastė, trajstė (same meaning), cf. Romanian synonym straiţă and Albanian strajcė

ţap-he-goat-[COLOR="red"]Albanian: cjap (ibex, billy-goat)[/COLOR

ţarc-pen, fold (fenced enclosure for animals)-Cf. Albanian cark or thark (enclosure for animals).

ţīmburuştoday ţumburuş)-a small, usually round, protrusion on a surface, nub-Cf. Albanian thumbullė (pin; small nail)

vatră-hearth, home, fireplace-Albanian vatre (fireplace)

viezure(archaic form viedzure)-badger-Cf. Albanian vjedhullė (the thief, from the verb vjeth, to steal).

zară-buttermilk-Albanian dhallė (same meaning),

zăr(today zer)-whey-Cf. Albanian dhallė (sour milk, diluted yogurt).

zgardă-collar-Cf. Albanian shkardhė (leash)
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i vjetėr 18-11-2011, 17:56   #19
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Edhe disa fjale te tjera Qe egzistojn ne te duja gjuhet: Shqipen dhe Rrumanishten, shumica e te cilave nuk gjenden ne asnje gjuhe tjeter!

Matriali eshte marre nga libri "Hyrje ne Historine e Gjuhes Shqipe" Eqerem Cabej.

Shqip Rrumanisht

Ajke(Alke)------------------- Alca

Bardhe----------------------Barza(lejlek)

Dalte------------------------Dalta

Dhalle-----------------------Dzare

Fluture----------------------Fluture

Gardh-----------------------Gard

Hames----------------------Hames

Kercu-----------------------Carciun

Sharke----------------------Sarica

Udhos, "djadhe", urle------Urda

"Ne kete mes do ven re mendimi i Gustav Meyerit, qe thote se disa cilesi fonetike e semantike te elementeve shqipe te rumanishtes na shpien ne nje kohe, e cila eshte me e mocme se formimi i gjuhes e i kombesise rumune.

Sandfeldi ben nje shtresim me dysh te fjaleve te perbashketa tumune-shqiptare. Njera perfshin sipas ij ato fjale rumune qe puthiten plotesisht me fjalet perktese te shqipes e qe mund te shikohen pra si te burimit shqiptar. Tjetra rrok disa fjale, te cilat nga forma e nga kuptimi qe kane duket se rrjedhin prej nje burimi qe eshte i perbashket per shqipen e per rumanishten.

Aromunet e Shqiperise e te se tjerave vise t Ballkanit perendimor kane qene prej shekujsh, e jane edhe sot, ne kontakt me Shqipetaret. Ne kete menyre arumanishtja ka marre shume fjale prej shqipes. Ne fushen e studimeve Aromune vendi i nderit i takon Gustav Weigandit. Marredheniet aromuno-shqiptare ne gjuhe i ka studuar sidomos Theodor Capidani, vete aromun prej Prilepit te Maqedonise."

Burimi esht i mare po aty faqet: 168,169,170!
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i vjetėr 18-11-2011, 21:06   #20
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Gjendja bazė Pėrgjigje e: Sa thelle jane Rrenjet e gjuhes Shqipe dhe Afiniteti i saj me gjuhet Ind

Maqellariot urime per temen ! Tema eshte shume e bukur dhe me vlera per komunitetin tone virtual. Ktu mund te ngrihen shume diskutime dhe nuk jam gati qe t'i futem tani per tani, por eshte dicka qe me terheq. Thjesht ndjeva nevojen qe te te uroja per temen .

Per Serafimin:

Cilesimi indoeuropian ka te beje me gjuhen e folur (me teper me ndertimin e gramatikes). Nuk ka popuj indoeuropian, por gjuhe indoeuropiane dhe sipas gjuhe mund t'i quash me pas popuj indoeuropiane. Pshm Turqishtja nuk eshte gjuhe indoeuropiane. Faktikisht kjo do nje shpjegim shume me te gjate dhe qe te mos ia fusim kot duhet pare mire burimet dhe pastaj t'i postoj ktu, thjesht po them ne vija te pergjithshme cfar di. Ose tjetra se pse quhen indoeuropiane... kur zbriten rracat ariane nga veriu i europes, vajten drejt indise dhe sipas mendimit tim duhet te jene hasur me rracat indiane para se te mberrinin ne indin e sotme pra ne mesopotami ku u krijuan dhe sumeret te cilet i bie te jene paraardhesit e hershem te simteve (arabve dhe hebrejve). Te gjitha kto ne vija te trasha sepse eshte teme shume e gjera te cilet historianet kane shekuj qe e diskutojne dhe se nuk mund ta shprekim ne dy rreshta.
Morrison nuk ndodhet nė linjė   Pėrgjigju pėrmes citimit
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